200 Alabama Bicentennial

Celebrating Alabama’s 200th birthday2017 2018 2019

Directions for Interpreting the Minimum Required Content

  1. CONTENT STANDARDS are statements that define what students should know and be able to do at the conclusion of a course or grade.  Content standards in this document contain minimum required content.  The order in which standards are listed within a course or grade is not intended to convey a sequence for instruction.  Each content standard completes the phrase “Students will.”

    • Students Will:
      Interpret various primary sources for reconstructing the past, including documents, letters, diaries, maps and photographs.

    • (Third Grade–Content Standard 11)

  2. BULLETS denote content related to the standards and required for instruction.  Bulleted content is listed under a standard and identifies additional minimum required content.

    • Students will:
      Explain the role and consequences of domestic and foreign policy decisions, including scientific and technological advancements and humanitarian, cultural, economic, and political changes.

      • Evaluating financial, political, and social costs of national security

    • (Twelfth Grade–United States Government–Content Standard 15)

  3. EXAMPLES clarify certain components of content standards or bullets.  They are illustrative but not exhaustive.

    • Students will:
      Identify historical events and celebrations within the local community and throughout Alabama.

    • Examples:  Selma Bridge Crossing Jubilee, Mardi Gras, Boll Weevil Festival, Montgomery Bus Boycott, Black History Month

    • (First Grade–Content Standard 5)

  4. GRIDS to the left of each content standard indicate the dominant strands that are addressed in the standard or related content found in the bullets.  These strands are economics (E), geography (G), history (H), and civics and government (CG).

    E G H CG
       
  5. MAP ICONS  representative of the state of Alabama indicate content related to Alabama history and geography.

KINDERGARTEN – SECOND GRADE OVERVIEW

The intrinsically creative and imaginative nature of Grades K-2 students prompts them to want to explore their world.  Through exploration they encounter and gain appreciation of the array of beliefs, cultures, and customs that comprise our world.  Students at this level are concrete learners who benefit greatly from challenging, multisensory instructional opportunities that provide time for them to be actively engaged in learning.  Through a thematic approach to instruction, students begin to develop an appreciation for their community, state, and nation while broadening their perspectives regarding the lives of others.  The use of various genres of literature and hands-on activities that address each strand of the curriculum allows students to experience social studies in real and meaningful ways.  The classroom should be one in which students are immersed in a print-rich environment that includes reading stories, myths, legends, and biographies that captivate their imagination.  Viewing artifacts, records, and illustrations helps make connections with people and places around the community, state, and nation.

The Grades K-2 social studies content standards introduce students to basic social studies concepts through an integration across all disciplines, including language arts, mathematics, science, the fine arts, technology, and physical education.  Students learn about past and present events in history and everyday life and begin to pose questions that promote understanding beyond the present-day world and into the future.  Kindergarten content addresses living and working together in family and communities while first-grade content focuses on living and working together in communities and in the state.  Second-grade content expands on the theme of living and working together to include state and nation.  Throughout the curriculum students are able to develop a sense of their place in the world, including ways to excel both as private individuals and as public citizens.

Kindergarten

Living and Working Together in Family and Communities

Kindergarten students are introduced to the world beyond family and home.  As students become acquainted with new classmates, they develop sensitivity to the similarities and differences among individuals in the classroom as well as within the school and community.  Comparing family traditions enables students to accept and appreciate diversity and gain a sense of purpose regarding their role and the role of others within the community.

The kindergarten curriculum contains balanced, comprehensive content that facilitates students’ understanding of economics, geography, history, and civics.  An appropriate learning environment is one that reflects a thematic and interdisciplinary approach emphasizing instructional flexibility, multiple individual learning styles, and opportunities for student exploration and discovery.  Concrete examples of abstract concepts help young students develop skills for critical thinking, inquiry, and an understanding of citizenship in a democratic society.  Examples for instruction may include assisting in determining classroom rules, taking turns while playing games, and standing while pledging allegiance to the flag.  As students gain insight into these and other concepts, they are able to view themselves as effective citizens of a culturally diverse democratic society.

Students will:

  1. Sequence events using schedules, calendars, and timelines.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples: daily classroom activities, significant events in students' lives
    • Differentiating among broad categories of historical time
      • Examples: long ago, yesterday, today, tomorrow
  2. Identify rights and responsibilities of citizens within the family, classroom, school, and community.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples: taking care of personal belongings and respecting the property of others, following rules and recognizing consequences of breaking rules, taking responsibility for assigned duties

  3. Describe how rules provide order, security, and safety in the home, school, and community.
    E G H CG
         
    • Constructing classroom rules, procedures, and consequences

  4. Differentiate between needs and wants of family, school, and community.
    E G H CG
         
    • Comparing wants among different families, schools, and communities

  5. Differentiate between goods and services.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples:

      • goods—food, toys, clothing

      • services—medical care, fire protection, law enforcement, library resources

  6. Compare cultural similarities and differences in individuals, families, and communities.
    E G H CG
       
     
    • Examples: celebrations, food, traditions
  7. Describe roles of helpers and leaders, including school principal, school custodian, volunteers police officers, and fire and rescue workers.
    E G H CG
         
  8. Recognize maps, globes, and satellite images.
    E G H CG
         
  9. Differentiate between land forms and bodies of water on maps and globes.
    E G H CG
         
  10. Apply vocabulary related to giving and following directions.
    E G H CG
         
    • Example: locating objects and places to the right or left, up or down, in or out, above or below

  11. Identify symbols, customs, famous individuals, and celebrations representative of our state and nation.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:    

      • symbols—United States flag, Alabama flag, bald eagle

      • customs—pledging allegiance to the United States flag, singing “The Star – Spangled Banner”  

      • individuals—George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Squanto, Martin Luther King, Jr.  

      • celebrations—Fourth of July, Memorial Day, Veterans Day

  12. Describe families and communities of the past, including jobs, education, transportation, communication, and recreation.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying ways everyday life has both changed and remained the same

First Grade

Living and Working Together in Communities and State

The goal of the first-grade curriculum is to help students acquire knowledge regarding their place in the local community and in the state.  First graders gain a deeper sense of the role of effective citizenry in a democratic society as they develop an awareness of their basic rights and responsibilities as citizens, including the laws designed to protect them.  Students continue to develop a sense of time and place as they increase their understanding of the past, present, and future through the use of real-life examples.  They develop an understanding of historical events within the community and state by comparing life today to life long ago.

As students study concepts in economics, geography, history, and civics, they learn about people in different times and places.  Extensive use of literature promotes students’ understanding of cultures, traditions, and societal groups within the community and state.  A thematic approach to instruction includes active, hands-on participation through activities that include opportunities for exploration and discovery.  Activities designed for diverse learning styles allow students to understand the relationship among people, places, and events of the community and the state, thus making lessons meaningful to their lives.

Students will:

  1. Construct daily schedules, calendars, and timelines.
    E G H CG
       
    • Using vocabulary associated with time, including past, present, and future
  2. Identify rights and responsibilities of citizens within the local community and states.

    E G H CG
       
    • Describing how rules in the community and laws in the state protect citizens’ rights and property
    • Describing ways, including paying taxes, responsible citizens contribute to the common good of the community and state
    • Demonstrating voting as a way of making choices and decisions
  3. Recognize leaders and their roles in the local community and state. 

    E G H CG
         
    • Describing roles of public officials, including mayor and governor 

    • Identifying on a map Montgomery as the capital of the state of Alabama 

  4. Identify contributions of diverse significant figures that influenced the local community and state in the past and present. 

    E G H CG
         
    • Example: Admiral Raphael Semmes’ and Emma Sansom’s roles during the Civil War
  5. Identify historical events and celebrations within the local community and throughout Alabama.

    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: Selma Bridge Crossing Jubilee, Mardi Gras, Boll Weevil Festival, Montgomery Bus Boycott, Black History Month 

    • Differentiating between fact and opinion when sharing stories or retelling events using primary and secondary sources
      • Example: fictional version of Pocahontas compared to an authentic historical account
  6. Compare ways individuals and groups in the local community and state lived in the past to how they live today. 

    E G H CG
       
    • Identifying past and present forms of communication

      • Examples:

        • past—letter, radio, rotary-dial, telephone

        • present—e-mail, television, cellular telephone

    • Identifying past and present types of apparel
    • Identifying past and present types of technology
      • Examples:
        • past—record player, typewriter, wood-burning stove
        • present—compact diskette (CD)  and digital video diskette (DVD) players, video cassette recorder (VCR), computer, microwave oven
    • Identifying past and present types of recreation
      • Examples:
        • past—marbles, hopscotch, jump rope
        • present—video games, computer games
    • Identifying past and present primary sources
      • Examples:
        • past—letters, newspapers
        • present—e-mail, Internet articles
  7. Descrive how occupational and recreational opportunities in the local community and state are affected by the physical environment. 

    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:

      • occupational—commercial fishing and tourism in Gulf coast areas

      • recreational—camping and hiking in mountain areas, fishing and waterskiing in lake areas

  8. Identify land masses, bodies of water, and other physical features on maps and globes
    E G H CG
         
    • Explaining the use of cardinal directions and the compass rose
    • Measuring distance using nonstandard units
      • Example: measuring with pencils, stings, hands, feet
    • Using vocabulary associated with geographical features, including rivers, lakes, oceans, and mountains
  9. Differentiate between natural resources and human-made products.
    E G H CG
       
    • Listing ways to protect our natural resources
      • Examples: conserving forests by recycling newspapers, conserving energy by turning off lights, promoting protection of resources by participating in activities such as Earth Day and Arbor Day
  10. Describe the role of money in everyday life.
    E G H CG
         
    • Categorizing purchases families make as needs or wants
    • Explaining the concepts of saving and borrowing
    • Identifying differences between buyers and sellers
    • Classifying specialized jobs of workers with regard to the production of goods and services
    • Using vocabulary associated with the function of money, including barter, trade, spend, and save
  11. Identify traditions and contributions of various cultures in the local community and state. 
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: Kwanzaa, Christmas, Hanukkah, Fourth of July, Cinco de Mayo
  12. Compare common and unique characteristics in societal groups, including age, religious beliefts, ethnicity, persons with disabilities, and equality between genders
    E G H CG
         

Second Grade

Living and Working Together in State and Nation

The goal of the second-grade curriculum is to introduce students to major historical events, figures, and symbols related to the principles of American democracy.  Children learn to value differences among people and exemplify a respect for the rights and opinions of others.  They develop an appreciation of shared values, principles, and beliefs that promote stability for our country’s government and its citizens.  Through a thematic approach to instruction, second-grade students acquire knowledge as they study various cultures, places, and environments.

Content standards for second grade address the disciplines of economics, geography, history, and civics.  Students benefit from engagement in factual accounts of history and artifacts related to these histories.  Hands-on instruction that relates content to students’ lives provides familiarity and allows students to retain and build on newly presented materials.  Students gain a deeper understanding of content through independent and cooperative learning, project-based learning, and through the examination of primary and secondary sources.

Students will:

  1. Relate principles of American democracy to the founding of the nation.
    E G H CG
       
    • Identifying reasons for the settlement of the thirteen colonies
    • Recognizing basic principles of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, the establishment of the three branches of government, and the Emancipation Proclamation
    • Demonstrating the voting process, including roles of major political parties
    • Utilizing school and classroom rules to reinforce democratic values
  2. Identify national historical figures and celebrations that exemplify fundamental democratic values, including equality, justice, and responsibility for the common good.
    E G H CG
       
    • Recognizing our country’s founding fathers, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, John Adams, John Hancock, and James Madison
    • Recognizing historical female figures, including Abigail Adams, Dolley Madison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • Describing the significance of national holidays, including the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., Presidents’ Day, Memorial Day, the Fourth of July, Veterans Day, and Thanksgiving Day 
    • Describing the history of American symbols and monuments
      • Examples: Liberty Bell, Statue of Liberty, bald eagle, United States flag, Washington Monument, Lincoln Memorial
  3. Use various primary sources, including calendars and timelines, for constructing the past.
    E G H CG
       
    • Example: historical letters, stories, interviews with elders, photographs, maps, artifacts
  4. Use vocabulary to describe segments of time, including year, decade, score, and century.
    E G H CG
         
  5. Differentiate between a physical map and a politcal map.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples:
      • physical map—illustrating rivers and mountains
      • political map—illustrating symbols for states and capitals
    • Using vocabulary associated with geographical features, including latitude, longitude, and border
  6. Identify states, continents, oceans, and the equator using maps, globes, and technology.
    E G H CG
         
    • Identifying map elements, including title, legend, compass rose, and scale
    • Identifying the intermediate directions of northeast, southeast, northwest, and southwest 
    • Recognizing technological resources such as a virtual globe, satellite images, and radar
    • Locating points on a grid
  7. Explain production and distribution processes.
    E G H CG
         
    • Example: tracing milk supply from dairy to consumer
    • Identifying examples of imported and exported goods
    • Describing the impact of consumer choices and decisions on supply and demand
  8. Describe how scarcity affects supply and demand of natural resources and human-made products.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples: cost of gasoline during oil shortages, price and expiration date of perishable foods
  9. Describe how and why people from various cultures immigrate to the United States.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:
      • how—ships, planes, automobiles
      • why—improved quality of life, family connections, disasters
    • Describing the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  10. Identify ways people throughout a country are affected by their human and physical environments.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: land use, housing, occupations
    • Comparing physical features of regions throughout the country
      • Examples: differences in a desert environment, a tropical rain forest, and a polar region
    • Identifying positive and negative ways people affect the environment
      • Examples: 
        • positive—restocking fish in lakes, reforesting cleared land
        • negative—polluting water, littering roadways, eroding soil
    • Recognizing benefits of recreation and tourism at state and national parks 
  11. Interpret legends, stories, and songs that contributed to the development of the cultural history of the United States.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples: American Indian legends, African-American stories, tall tales, stories of folk heroes

THIRD – FOURTH GRADE OVERVIEW

Students in Grades 3 and 4 continue to be naturally curious and eager to learn.  They express interest in the unfamiliar and are developmentally ready to study geographic skills and concepts, a major focus of third-grade content.  Students begin to develop an understanding of how the environment affects its inhabitants and how people change the land.  In fourth grade, students enjoy hearing stories of Alabama’s past and are ready to be introduced to their first formal chronological study of history.  As they develop an appreciation for people, places, and events that shaped the history of Alabama, they expand their understanding of historical concepts and gain an understanding of their relationship to cultures locally, nationally, and internationally.

The four strands of economics, geography, history, and civics and government are woven throughout the third- and fourth-grade curricula.  Through the study of geography in third grade and Alabama history in fourth grade, students develop a better understanding of where they live.  As they become active participants in their schools and communities, they begin to view themselves as future leaders with civic responsibilities.  Students compare their own economic experiences with those of others to aid in understanding local, national, and international concepts.  Through a variety of learning experiences, including the use of technology for exploration and investigation, students gain an increased level of interest and involvement in their world as they prepare to become competent, responsible citizens who lead productive and independent lives.

Third Grade

Geographical and Historical Studies: People, Places, and Regions

During third grade, teachers capitalize upon students’ natural curiosity and their interest in the unfamiliar as geographic information is introduced regarding areas of the United States as well as the world.  Students in Grade 3 learn from concrete experiences and benefit from resources such as pictures, graphs, maps, globes, and information technology that help make abstractions more concrete.  Instruction of this nature plays a dual role in helping students learn not only to use these geographic tools, but also to learn in real and interesting ways about other people, places, and cultures.

This year-long study focuses on skills necessary for students to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.  Although all four content strands are interwoven into instruction, the greatest emphasis is placed on the geography strand.  Content expands upon geographic knowledge acquired by students from kindergarten through second grade to help students establish a firm geographic foundation to build upon throughout life.

Students will:

  1. Locate the prime meridian, equator, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer, International Date Line, and lines of latitude and longitude on maps and globes.
    E G H CG
         
    • Using cardinal and intermediate directions to locate on a map or globe an area in Alabama or the world 
    • Using coordinates to locate points on a grid
    • Determining distance between places on a map using a scale
    • Locating physical and cultural regions using labels, symbols, and legends on an Alabama or world map 
    • Describing the use of geospatial technologies
      • Examples: Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS
    • Interpreting information on thematic maps
      • Examples: population, vegetation, climate, growing season, irrigation
    • Using vocabulary associated with maps and globes, including megalopolis, landlocked, border, and elevation
  2. Locate the continents on a map or globe.
    E G H CG
         
    • Using vocabulary associated with geographical features of Earth, including hills, plateau, valley, peninsula, island, isthmus, ice cap, and glaciers
    • Locating major mountain ranges, oceans, rivers, and lakes throughout the world 
  3. Describe ways the enviornment is affected by humans in Alabama and the world
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: crop rotation, oil spills, landfills, clearing of forests, replacement of cleared lands, restocking of fish in waterways
    • Using vocabulary associated with human influence on the environment, including irrigation, aeration, urbanization, reforestation, erosion, and migration
  4. Relate population dispersion to geographic, economic, and histroric changes in Alabama and the world. 
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • geographic—flood, hurricane, tsunami
      • economic—crop failure
      • historic—disease, war, migration
    • Identifying human and physical criteria used to define regions and boundaries
      • Examples:
        • human—city boundaries, school district lines
        • physical—hemispheres, regions within continents or countries
  5. Compare trading patterns between countries and regions.
    E G H CG
       
    • Differentiating between producers and consumers
    • Differentiating between imports and exports
      • Examples:
        • imports—coffee, crude oil
        • exports—corn, wheat, automobiles
  6. Identify conflicts within and between geographic areas involving use of land, economic competition for scarce resources, opposing political views, boundary disputes, and cultural differences.
    E G H CG
    • Identifying examples of cooperation among governmental agencies within and between different geographic areas
      • Examples: American Red Cross, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), World Health Organization (WHO)
    • Locating areas of political conflict on maps and globes
    • Explaining the role of the United Nations (UN) and the United States in resolving conflict within and between geographic areas
  7. Describe the relationship between locations of resources and patterns of population distribution.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: presence of trees for building homes, availability of natural gas supply for heating, availability of water supply for drinking and for irrigating crops
    • Locating major natural resources and deposits throughout the world on topographical maps
    • Comparing present-day mechanization of labor with the historical use of human labor for harvesting natural resources
      • Example: present-day practices of using machinery to mine coal and harvest cotton and pecans
    • Explaining the geographic impact of using petroleum, coal, nuclear power, and solar power as major energy sources in the twenty-first century
  8. Identify geographic links of land regions, river systems, and interstate highways between Alabama and other states.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: Appalachian Mountains, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, Interstate Highway 65 (I-65), Natchez Trace parkway
    • Locating the five geographic regions of Alabama 
    • Locating state and national parks on a map or globe 
  9. Identify ways to prepare for natural disasters.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: constructing houses on stilts in flood-prone areas, buying earthquake and flood insurance, providing hurricane or tornado shelters, establishing emergency evacuation routes
  10. Recognize functions of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.
    E G H CG
       
    • Describing the process by which a bill becomes law
    • Explaining the relationship between the federal government and state governments, including the three branches of government 
    • Defining governmental systems, including democracy, monarchy, and dictatorship
  11. Interpret various primary sources for reconstructing the past, including documents, letters, diaries, maps, and photographs.
    E G H CG
       
    • Comparing maps of the past to maps of the presen
  12. Explain the significance of representations of American values and beliefs, including the Statue of Liberty, the statue of Lady Justice, the United States flag, and the national anthem.
    E G H CG
         
  13.  Describe prehistoric and historic American Indian cultures, governments, and economics in Alabama. 
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • prehistoric American Indians—Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian
      • historic American Indians—Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek
    • Identifying roles of archaeologists and paleontologists

Fourth Grade

Alabama Studies  

Fourth-grade students apply geographic concepts obtained in Grade 3 to a study of their own state and relate geography to history, economics, and politics in Alabama.  They examine ways economic and political institutions respond to the needs of Alabamians.  Students gain knowledge of economic principles and technological advancements as well as knowledge of past events and present-day practices in the state.  They learn specific characteristics regarding the land and its people and analyze diverse groups that contributed to the development of Alabama, beginning with early American Indians in Alabama and continuing to the present.

Fourth-graders’ enthusiasm for classifying and organizing information may be used for obtaining knowledge about geographic regions in Alabama.  Students investigate Alabama’s role in the Civil War, civil rights efforts, and the structure of state and local governments.  They compare similarities between contemporary issues and their historical origins and draw parallels among historical events in Alabama, other states, and the world.

Students will:

  1. Compare historical and current economic, political, and geographic information about Alabama on thematic maps, including weather and climate, physical-relief, waterway, transportation, political, economic development, land-use, and population maps.
    E G H CG
    • Describing types of migrations as they affect the environment, agriculture, economic development, and population changes in Alabama
  2. Relate reasons for European exploration and settlement in Alabama to the impact of European explorers on trade, health, and land expansion in Alabama.
    E G H CG
    • Locating on maps European settlements in early Alabama, including Fort Condé, Fort Toulouse, and Fort Mims
    • Tracing, on maps and globes, routes of early explorers of the New World, including Juan Ponce de León, Hernando de Soto, and Vasco Núñez de Balboa
    • Explaining reasons for conflicts between Europeans and American Indians in Alabama from 1519 to 1840, including differing beliefs regarding land ownership, religion, and culture
  3. Explain the social, political, and economic impact of the War of 1812, including battles and significant leaders of the Creek War, on Alabama.
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • social—adoption of European culture by American Indians, opening of Alabama land for settlement
      • political—forced relocation of American Indians, labeling of Andrew Jackson as a hero and propelling him toward Presidency
      • economic—acquisition of tribal land in Alabama by the United States
    • Explaining the impact of the Trail of Tears on Alabama American Indians’ lives, rights, and territories
  4. Relate the relationship of the five geographic regions of Alabama to the movement of Alabama settlers during the early nineteenth century.
    E G H CG
       
    • Recognizing natural resources of Alabama during the early nineteenth century
    • Describing human environments of Alabama as they relate to settlement during the early nineteenth century, including housing, roads, and place names
  5. Describe Alabama’s entry into statehood and establishment of its three branches of government and the constitutions.
    E G H CG
     
    • Explaining political and geographic reasons for changes in location of Alabama’s state capital
    • Recognizing roles of prominent political leaders during early statehood in Alabama, including William Wyatt Bibb, Thomas Bibb, Israel Pickens, William Rufus King, and John W. Walker
  6. Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.
    E G H CG
    • Examples:    
      • cultural—housing, education, religion, recreation
      • economic—transportation, means of support
      • political—inequity of legal codes
    • Describing major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys
  7. Explain reasons for Alabama’s secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, states’ rights, and economic disagreements.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying Alabama’s role in the organization of the Confederacy, including hosting the secession convention and the inauguration ceremony for leaders
    • Recognizing Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy
    • Interpreting the Articles of the Confederation and the Gettysburg Address
  8. Explain Alabama’s economic and military role during the Civil War.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:
      • economic—production of iron products, munitions, textiles, and ships
      • military—provision of military supplies through the Port of Mobile, provision of armament center at Selma
    • Recognizing military leaders from Alabama during the Civil War
    • Comparing roles of women during and after the Civil War on the home front and battlefront
    • Explaining economic conditions as a result of the Civil War, including the collapse of the economic structure, destruction of the transportation infrastructure, and high casualty rates
  9. Analyze political and economic issues facing Alabama during Reconstruction for their impact on various social groups.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • political issues—military rule, presence of Freedmen’s Bureau, Alabama’s readmittance to the Union     
      • economic issues—sharecropping, tenant farming, scarcity of goods and money
    • Interpreting the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
    • Identifying African Americans who had an impact on Alabama during Reconstruction in Alabama
    • Identifying major political parties in Alabama during Reconstruction
  10. Analyze social and educational changes during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century for their impact on Alabama.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • social—implementation of the Plessey versus Ferguson “separate but not equal” court decision, birth of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
      • educational—establishment of normal schools and land-grant colleges such as Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical (A&M) University, Auburn University, Tuskegee University, Alabama State University
    • Explaining the development and changing role of industry, trade, and agriculture in Alabama during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including the rise of Populism
    • Explaining Jim Crow laws
    • Identifying Alabamians who made contributions in the fields of science, education, the arts, politics, and business during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
  11. Describe the impact of World War I on Alabamians, including the migration of African Americans from Alabama to the North and West, utilization of Alabama’s military installations and training facilities, and increased production of goods for the war effort.
    E G H CG
       
    • Recognizing Alabama participants in World War I, including Alabama’s 167th Regiment of the Rainbow Division
    • Identifying World War I technologies, including airplanes, machine guns, and chemical warfare
  12. Explain the impact the 1920s and Great Depression had on different socioeconomic groups in Alabama.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:
      • impact of the 1920s—increase in availability of electricity, employment opportunities, wages, products, consumption of goods and services; overproduction of goods; stock market crash
      • impact of the Great Depression—overcropping of land, unemployment, poverty, establishment of new federal programs
    • Explaining how supply and demand impacted economies of Alabama and the United States during the 1920s and the Great Depression
  13. Describe the economic and social impact of World War II on Alabamians, including the entry of women into the workforce, increase in job opportunities, rationing, utilization of Alabama’s military installations, military recruitment, the draft, and a rise in racial consciousness.
    E G H CG
     
    • Recognizing Alabama participants in World War II, including the Tuskegee Airmen and women in the military
    • Justifying the strategic placement of military bases in Alabama, including Redstone Arsenal, Fort Rucker, Fort McClellan, and Craig Air Force Base 
  14. Analyze the modern Civil Rights Movement to determine the social, political, and economic impact on Alabama.
    E G H CG
     
    • Recognizing important persons of the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr., George C. Wallace, Rosa Parks, Fred Shuttlesworth, John Lewis, Malcolm X, Thurgood Marshall, Hugo Black, and Ralph David Abernathy
    • Describing events of the modern Civil Rights Movement, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, the Freedom Riders bus bombing, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March
    • Explaining benefits of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and Brown versus Board of Education Supreme Court case of 1954
    • Using vocabulary associated with the modern Civil Rights Movement, including discrimination, prejudice, segregation, integration, suffrage, and rights
  15. Identify major world events that influenced Alabama since 1950, including the Korean Conflict, the Cold War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and the War on Terrorism.
    E G H CG
         
  16. Determine the impact of population growth on cities, major road systems, demographics, natural resources, and the natural environment of Alabama during the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century.
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing how technological advancements brought change to Alabamians, including the telephone; refrigerator; automobile; television; and wireless, Internet, and space technologies
    • Relating Alabama’s economy to the influence of foreign-based industry, including the automobile industry

FIFTH – SIXTH GRADE OVERVIEW

Students in fifth and sixth grades are interested in ways different groups of people developed and in cultures represented in American society.  Students begin to examine and question the nature of culture and its influence on human belief systems.  While not yet skilled in abstract reasoning, fifth and sixth graders are beginning to formulate more focused questions about the world around them.  This curiosity can be utilized to help them identify important concepts and ideas embedded in the history of the United States.

Effective instruction is critical in guiding students to reach their full potential in understanding and applying economic concepts, patterns of historical change and continuity, and the use of land.  Fifth- and sixth-grade content standards require students to examine and explain interactions between states and nations and their cultural complexities.  These learners are able to think about themselves as persons in civic roles as they grow in the recognition of their rights and responsibilities as citizens.

The main focus of social studies in Grades 5 and 6 is a study of the chronological development of the United States through a two-year sequence as recommended by the National Council for the Social Studies.  Through an integrated approach that includes economic, geographic, historical, political, social, and cultural perspectives, content in these grades emphasizes roles various groups played in the development of American society.  The key concepts of chronology, change, conflict, complexity, and increased globalization are addressed to show connections among the strands of economics, geography, history, and civics and government.

Effective teachers utilize a variety of instructional strategies and assessment tools to address various learning styles.  They consistently incorporate best practices into instruction, introduce and make use of primary sources integral to the teaching of history, and utilize current technology on a regular basis in classroom instruction.  Rather than providing all the answers, innovative teachers help students develop critical-thinking skills by encouraging them to evaluate their own opinions as well as those of others.  In addition, effective teachers recognize the strong need for a sense of belonging characterized by this age group and therefore provide cooperative learning experiences where students develop a sense of personal identity as well as a sense of responsibility to the group.

Fifth Grade

United States Studies:  Beginnings to the Industrial Revolution

Fifth-grade content standards focus on the United States from the prehistoric period to the Industrial Revolution.  Instruction addresses the strands of economics, geography, history, and civics and government from the earliest times through the formation and growth of the nation to the latter part of the nineteenth century with an emphasis on the development of the American Republic. Students also become familiar with major events in the periods of the American Revolution, the Westward Expansion, the Civil War, and Reconstruction.

Students at the fifth-grade level are becoming more aware of both their immediate and global environments.  Due to the emotional and social development of fifth-grade students, this is the optimal time to assist in their understanding of history by exposing them to discussions involving differing viewpoints and opinions of others.  As students begin to explore multiple ideas and perceptions, they become more respectful of others’ viewpoints and actions.

Fifth-grade students benefit from a positive classroom environment that provides learning activities to optimize growth and achievement, including lessons that integrate a variety of appropriate and effective instructional strategies from hands-on activities to inquiry-based learning.  By developing and monitoring goals for their own learning and behavior, fifth graders are able to gain a greater sense of responsibility for their own actions, including how these actions may affect fellow classmates.

Students will:

  1. Locate on a map physical features that impacted the exploration and settlement of the Americas, including ocean currents, prevailing winds, large forests, major rivers, and significant mountain ranges.
    E G H CG
       
    • Locating on a map states and capitals east of the Mississippi River
    • Identifying natural harbors in North America
      • Examples: Mobile, Boston, New York, New Orleans, Savannah.  
  2. Identify causes and effects of early migration and settlement of North America.
    E G H CG
       
  3. Distinguish differences among major American Indian cultures in North America according to geographic region, natural resources, community organization, economy, and belief systems.
    E G H CG
    • Locating on a map American Indian nations according to geographic region
  4. Determine the economic and cultural impact of European exploration during the Age of Discovery upon European society and American Indians.
    E G H CG
    • Identifying significant early European patrons, explorers, and their countries of origin, including early settlements in the New World
      • Examples:
        • patrons—King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
        • explorers—Christopher Columbus
        • early settlements—St. Augustine, Quebec, Jamestown
    • Tracing the development and impact of the Columbian Exchange
  5. Explain the early colonization of North America and reasons for settlement in the Northern, Middle, and Southern colonies, including geographic features, landforms, and differences in climate among the colonies.
    E G H CG
    • Recognizing how colonial development was influenced by the desire for religious freedom
      • Examples: development in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Maryland colonies
    • Identifying influential leaders in colonial society
    • Describing emerging colonial government
      • Examples: Mayflower Compact, representative government, town meetings, rule of law
  6. Describe colonial economic life and labor systems in the Americas.
    E G H CG
     
    • Recognizing centers of slave trade in the Western Hemisphere and the establishment of the Triangular Trade Route
  7. Determine causes and events leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, the Stamp Act, the Intolerable Acts, the Boston Massacre, and the Boston Tea Party.
    E G H CG
     
  8. Identify major events of the American Revolution, including the battles of Lexington and Concord, Bunker Hill, Saratoga, and Yorktown.
    E G H CG
    • Describing principles contained in the Declaration of Independence
    • Explaining contributions of Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, George Washington, Haym Solomon, and supporters from other countries to the American Revolution
    • Explaining contributions of ordinary citizens, including African Americans and women, to the American Revolution
    • Describing efforts to mobilize support for the American Revolution by the Minutemen, Committees of Correspondence, First Continental Congress, Sons of Liberty, boycotts, and the Second Continental Congress
    • Locating on a map major battle sites of the American Revolution, including the battles of Lexington and Concord, Bunker Hill, Saratoga, and Yorktown
    • Recognizing reasons for colonial victory in the American Revolution
    • Explaining the effect of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 on the development of the United States
  9. Explain how inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation led to the creation and eventual ratification of the Constitution of the United States.
    E G H CG
       
    • Describing major ideas, concepts, and limitations of the Constitution of the United States, including duties and powers of the three branches of government
    • Identifying factions in favor of and opposed to ratification of the Constitution of the United States
      • Example: Federalist and Anti-Federalist factions
    • Identifying main principles in the Bill of Rights
    • Analyzing the election of George Washington as President of the United States for its impact on the role of president in a republic
  10. Describe political, social, and economic events between 1803 and 1860 that led to the expansion of the territory of the United States, including the War of 1812, the Indian Removal Act, the Texas-Mexican War, the Mexican-American War, and the Gold Rush of 1849.
    E G H CG
    • Analyzing the role of the Louisiana Purchase and explorations of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark for their impact on Westward Expansion
    • Explaining the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine
    • Identifying Alabama’s role in the expansion movement in the United States, including the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and the Trail of Tears 
    • Identifying the impact of technological developments on United States’ expansion
      • Examples: steamboat, steam locomotive, telegraph, barbed wire
  11. Identify causes of the Civil War, including states’ rights and the issue of slavery.
    E G H CG
    • Describing the importance of the Missouri Compromise, Nat Turner’s insurrection, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown’s rebellion, and the election of 1860
    • Recognizing key Northern and Southern personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Joseph Wheeler 
    • Describing social, economic, and political conditions that affected citizens during the Civil War
    • Identifying Alabama’s role in the Civil War 
      • Examples: Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy, Winston County’s opposition to Alabama’s secession
    • Locating on a map sites important to the Civil War
      • Mason-Dixon Line, Fort Sumter, Appomattox, Gettysburg, Confederate states, Union states
    • Explaining events that led to the conclusion of the Civil War
  12. Summarize successes and failures of the Reconstruction Era.
    E G H CG
     
    • Evaluating the extension of citizenship rights to African Americans included in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
    • Analyzing the impact of Reconstruction for its effect on education and social institutions in the United States
    • Explaining the black codes and Jim Crow laws
    • Describing post-Civil War land distribution, including tenant farming and sharecropping
  13. Describe social and economic influences on United States’ expansion prior to World War I.
    E G H CG
     
    • Explaining how the development of the transcontinental railroads helped the United States achieve its Manifest Destiny
    • Locating on a map states, capitals, and important geographic features west of the Mississippi River
    • Explaining how the United States acquired Alaska and Hawaii
    • Identifying major groups and individuals involved with the Westward Expansion, including farmers, ranchers, Jewish merchants, Mormons, and Hispanics
    • Analyzing the impact of closing the frontier to American Indians’ way of life
    • Explaining how the Spanish-American War led to the emergence of the United States as a world power

Sixth Grade

United States Studies:  Industrial Revolution to the Present

Sixth-grade content standards focus on the history of the United States from the Industrial Revolution to the present.  Historical events studied by sixth graders include the rise of the United States as an industrial nation, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War Era.  Furthermore, the economic, political, social, and technological issues and developments from post-World War II to the present are explored.  Emphasis is placed on economic, geographic, historic, and civic and governmental changes that have influenced every aspect of life during these events, including communication and technological advances, reorganization of national boundaries, and the movement of the United States into the role of world leader.

Sixth-grade students are interested in acquiring a deeper understanding of cultures and political opinions that differ from their own.  Students at this age benefit from a positive learning environment that challenges and encourages their efforts and progress.  As they begin a transitional stage characterized by physical, cognitive, and social changes, they begin to analyze and evaluate relationships between ideas and practices.  Sixth-grade instruction should provide constant opportunities for students to explore prior knowledge and opinions.  Teachers should maximize and expand students’ knowledge through the use of integral tools, including cooperative learning, large- and small-group discussions, hands-on activities, current technology, and the use of primary sources.

Students will:

  1. Explain the impact of industrialization, urbanization, communication, and cultural changes on life in the United States from the late nineteenth century to World War I.
    E G H CG
  2. Describe reform movements and changing social conditions during the Progressive Era in the United States.
    E G H CG
    • Relating countries of origin and experiences of new immigrants to life in the United States
      • Examples: Ellis Island and Angel Island experiences
    • Identifying workplace reforms, including the eight-hour workday, child labor laws, and workers’ compensation laws
    • Identifying political reforms of Progressive movement leaders, including Theodore Roosevelt and the establishment of the national park system
    • Identifying social reforms of the Progressive movement, including efforts by Jane Adams, Clara Barton, and Julia Tutwiler 
    • Recognizing goals of the early civil rights movement and the purpose of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    • Explaining Progressive movement provisions of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-first Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
  3. Identify causes and consequences of World War I and reasons for United States’ entry into the war.
    E G H CG
    • Examples: sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmerman Note, alliances, militarism, imperialism, nationalism
    • Describing military and civilian roles in the United States during World War I
    • Explaining roles of important persons associated with World War I, including Woodrow Wilson and Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Analyzing technological advances of the World War I era for their impact on modern warfare
      • Example: machine gun, tank, submarine, airplane, poisonous gas, gas mask
    • Locating on a map major countries involved in World War I and boundary changes after the war
    • Explaining the intensification of isolationism in the United States after World War I
      • Examples: reaction of the Congress of the United States to the Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, and Red Scare
    • Recognizing the strategic placement of military bases in Alabama 
  4. Identify cultural and economic developments in the United States from 1900 through the 1930s.
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing the impact of various writers, musicians, and artists on American culture during the Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age
      • Examples: Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Andrew Wyeth, Frederic Remington, W. C. Handy, Erskine Hawkins, George Gershwin, Zora Neale Hurston  
    • Identifying contributions of turn-of-the-century inventors
      • Examples: George Washington Carver, Henry Ford, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Wilbur and Orville Wright 
    • Describing the emergence of the modern woman during the early 1900s
      • Examples: Amelia Earhart, Zelda Fitzgerald, Helen Keller, suffragettes, suffragists, Susan B. Anthony, flappers, Margaret Washington
    • Identifying notable persons of the early 1900s 
      • Examples: Babe Ruth, Charles A. Lindbergh, W. E. B. Du Bois, John T. Scopes
    • Comparing results of the economic policies of the Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover Administrations
      • Examples: higher wages, increase in consumer goods, collapse of farm economy, extension of personal credit, stock market crash, Immigration Act of 1924
  5. Explain causes and effects of the Great Depression on the people of the United States.
    E G H CG
    • Examples: economic failure, loss of farms, rising unemployment, building of Hoovervilles
    • Identifying patterns of migration during the Great Depression
    • Locating on a map the area of the United States known as the Dust Bowl
    • Describing the importance of the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President of the United States, including the New Deal alphabet agencies
    • Locating on a map river systems utilized by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 
  6. Identify causes and consequences of World War II and reasons for entry of the United States into the war.
    E G H CG
     
    • Locating on a map Allied countries and Axis Powers
    • Locating on a map key engagements of World War II, including Pearl Harbor; the battles of Normandy, Stalingrad, and Midway; and the Battle of the Bulge
    • Identifying key figures of World War II, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Sir Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Michinomiya Hirohito, and Hideki Tōjō
    • Describing the development of and the decision to use the atomic bomb
    • Describing human costs associated with World War II
      • Examples: the Holocaust, civilian and military casualties
    • Explaining the importance of the surrender of the Axis Powers ending World War II
  7. Identify changes on the American home front during World War II.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: rationing
    • Recognizing the retooling of factories from consumer to military production
    • Identifying new roles of women and African Americans in the workforce
    • Describing increased demand on Birmingham steel industry and Port of Mobile facilities 
    • Describing the experience of African Americans and Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II, including the Tuskegee Airmen and occupants of internment camps 
  8. Describe how the United States’ role in the Cold War influenced domestic and international events.
    E G H CG
    • Describing the origin and meaning of the Iron Curtain and communism
    • Recognizing how the Cold War conflict manifested itself through sports
      • Examples: Olympic Games, international chess tournaments, Ping-Pong diplomacy
    • Identifying strategic diplomatic initiatives that intensified the Cold War, including the policies of Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and John F. Kennedy
      • Examples: trade embargoes, Marshall Plan, arms race, Berlin blockade and airlift, Berlin Wall, mutually assured destruction, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Warsaw Pact, Cuban missile crisis, Bay of Pigs invasion
    • Identifying how Cold War tensions resulted in armed conflict
      • Examples: Korean Conflict, Vietnam War, proxy wars
    • Describing the impact of the Cold War on technological innovations
      • Examples: Sputnik; space race; weapons of mass destruction; accessibility of microwave ovens, calculators, and computers
    • Recognizing Alabama’s role in the Cold War
      • Examples: Arsenal, helicopter training at Fort Rucker 
    • Assessing effects of the end of the Cold War Era
      • Examples: policies of Mikhail Gorbachev; collapse of the Soviet Union; Ronald W. Reagan’s foreign policies, including the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or Star Wars)
  9. Critique major social and cultural changes in the United States since World War II.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying key persons and events of the modern Civil Rights Movement
      • Examples:
        • persons—Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Fred Shuttlesworth, John Lewis 
        • events—Brown versus Board of Education, Montgomery Bus Boycott, student protests, Freedom Rides, Selma-to-Montgomery Voting Rights March, political assassinations 
    • Describing the changing role of women in United States’ society and how it affected the family unit
      • Examples: women in the workplace, latchkey children
    • Recognizing the impact of music genres and artists on United States’ culture since World War II
      • Examples:
        • genres—protest songs; Motown, rock and roll, rap, folk, and country music
        • artists—Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Bob Dylan, Aretha Franklin, Hank Williams 
    • Identifying the impact of media, including newspapers, AM and FM radio, television, twenty-four hour sports and news programming, talk radio, and Internet social networking, on United States’ culture since World War II
  10. Analyze changing economic priorities and cycles of economic expansion and contraction for their impact on society since World War II.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: shift from manufacturing to service economy, higher standard of living, globalization, outsourcing, insourcing, “boom and bust,” economic bubbles
    • Identifying policies and programs that had an economic impact on society since World War II
      • Examples: G. I. Bill of Rights of 1944, Medicare and Medicaid, Head Start programs, space exploration, Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), environmental protection issues
    • Analyzing consequences of immigration for their impact on national and Alabama economies since World War II 
  11. Identify technological advancements on society in the United States since World War II.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:
      • 1950s—fashion doll, audio cassette
      • 1960s—action figure, artificial heart, Internet, calculator
      • 1970s—word processor, video game, cellular telephone
      • 1980s—personal computer, Doppler radar, digital cellular telephone
      • 1990s—World Wide Web, digital video diskette (DVD)
      • 2000s—digital music player, social networking technology, personal Global Positioning System (GPS) device
  12. Evaluate significant political issues and policies of presidential administrations since World War II.
    E G H CG
    • Identifying domestic policies that shaped the United States since World War II
      • Examples: desegregation of the military, Interstate Highway System, federal funding for education, Great Society, affirmative action, Americans with Disabilities Act, welfare reform, Patriot Act, No Child Left Behind Act
    • Recognizing domestic issues that shaped the United States since World War II
      • Examples: McCarthyism, Watergate scandal, political assassinations, health care, impeachment, Hurricane Katrina
    • Identifying issues of foreign affairs that shaped the United States since World War II
      • Examples: Vietnam Conflict, Richard Nixon’s China initiative, Jimmy Carter’s human rights initiative, emergence of China and India as economic powers
    • Explaining how conflict in the Middle East impacted life in the United States since World War II
      • Examples: oil embargoes; Iranian hostage situation; Camp David Accords; Persian Gulf Wars; 1993 World Trade Center bombing; terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001; War on Terrorism; homeland security
    • Recognizing the election of Barack Obama as the culmination of a movement in the United States to realize equal opportunity for all Americans
    • Identifying the 2008 presidential election as a watershed in the use of new technology and mass participation in the electoral process

SEVENTH – EIGTH GRADE OVERVIEW

In seventh grade, geography and civics are each taught as a one-semester course.  In the one-semester seventh-grade geography course, students study world geography using a thematic approach.  They focus on Earth as the subject matter that involves people, places, and environments and learn that geography seeks meaning in spatial patterns and processes that involve asking questions regarding where and why.  Teachers select particular continents, countries, and regions to provide the geographic framework for classroom instruction and investigation.

The one-semester seventh-grade civics course addresses content regarding democracy; liberty; law; personal economics; and local, state, and national civic responsibility.  This course provides students with information about how society works, including the role students play in the community and in the world.

The geographic knowledge of the world gained in Grade 7 benefits eighth-grade students as they begin their study of world history.  Students benefit by knowing where things are, how they got that way, and how the study of history benefits from knowledge of how geography affected historical events.  Course content incorporates the strands of economics, geography, history, and civics and government with an emphasis on the history and geography strands.

These courses emphasize the knowledge and skills necessary for developing a geographic perspective of the world and its people and events.  Geography is a strong component of the content for these grades, as students are required to become knowledgeable about the spatial aspects of human existence.  Students use geographic knowledge, tools, and technologies to pose and answer questions about spatial processes and to compare human and physical patterns on Earth.  Real maps and mental maps are also utilized by students to answer geographic questions.

Effective teachers utilize a variety of classroom instructional techniques and assessment strategies.  The classroom environment, activities, assignments, and assessments foster the skills of acquiring information and manipulating data; developing and presenting policies, arguments, and stories; constructing new knowledge; and participating in groups.  Technology, including Internet access, computer software, videos, and television programs, is used not only to provide opportunities for students to explore historical as well as geographic concepts, but also to enable students to compete in a rapidly changing world.  Because understanding contemporary events and relating them to the past are essential to any social studies course, current events is a vital component of the social studies content for Grades 7 and 8.

Seventh Grade

Geography

Geography is a diverse field of study that describes and examines spatial patterns of physical and human phenomena across Earth’s surface and the processes that created them.  Geography provides a spatial perspective that enables students to answer questions about the world around them, including why things are located where they are.  In this one-semester geography course, students increase their knowledge about the physical and human nature of the world and about relationships between people and their environments.  Interwoven throughout the course are the three interrelated components of geography.  These components include Earth as a physical object, a physical environment, and a place in which humans live; geographic skills; and spatial and ecological perspectives.  Students also study geography in the context of economics, civics and politics, history, and culture.  Content standards follow a thematic approach based on the essential elements of the National Geographic Research and Exploration’s National Geography Standards, which includes the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and uses of geography.

The classroom instructional environment should provide students with numerous opportunities to participate in learning activities that incorporate a variety of formats and learning tools, including role-playing, debate, and hands-on activities as well as the use of maps, globes, satellite images, and skills to interpret graphic organizers, text, charts, and graphs.  Students should have multiple opportunities for listening, reading, and writing activities as well as group and individual projects.  Culminating projects ensure that students apply geographic knowledge and skills to understand local, national, and international issues.

Students will:

  1. Describe the world in spatial terms using maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies.
    E G H CG
     
    • Explaining the use of map essentials, including type, projections, scale, legend, distance, direction, grid, and symbols
      • Examples:
        • type—reference, thematic, planimetric, topographic, globes and map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images
        • direction—lines of latitude and longitude, cardinal and intermediate directions
        • distance—fractional, graphic, and verbal scales
    • Identifying geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
      • Examples: Google Earth, Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), satellite remote sensing, aerial photography
    • Utilizing maps to explain relationships and environments among people and places, including trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns
    • Applying mental maps to answer geographic questions, including how experiences and cultures influence perceptions and decisions
    • Categorizing the geographic organization of people, places, and environments using spatial models
      • Examples: urban land-use patterns, distribution and linkages of cities, migration patterns, population density patterns, spread of culture traits, spread of contagious diseases through a population
  2. Determine how regions are used to describe the organization of Earth’s surface.
    E G H CG
       
    • Identifying physical and human features used as criteria for mapping formal, functional, and perceptual regions
      • Eamples:
        • physical features—landforms, climates, water bodies, resources
        • human features—language, religion, culture, economy, government
    • Interpreting processes and reasons for regional change, including land use, urban growth, population, natural disasters, and trade
    • Analyzing interactions among regions to show transnational relationships, including the flow of commodities and Internet connectivity
      • Examples: winter produce to Alabama from Chile and California, poultry from Alabama to other countries 
    • Comparing how culture and experience influence individual perceptions of places and regions
      • Examples: cultural influences—language, religion, ethnicity, iconography, symbology, stereotypes
    • Explaining globalization and its impact on people in all regions of the world
      • Examples: quality and sustainability of life, international cooperation
  3. Compare geographic patterns in the environment that result from processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earth’s physical systems.
    E G H CG
         
    • Comparing Earth-Sun relationships regarding seasons, fall hurricanes, monsoon rainfall, and tornadoes
    • Explaining processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena
      • Examples: 
        • processes—plate tectonics, glaciers, ocean and atmospheric circulation, El Niño
        • long-range effects—erosion on agriculture, typhoons on coastal ecosystems
    • Describing characteristics and physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth’s surface
    • Comparing how ecosystems vary from place to place and over time
      • Examples:
        • place to place—difference in soil, climate, and topography
        • over time—alteration or destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of  species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of  wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forest and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts
    • Comparing geographic issues in different regions that result from human and natural processes
      • Examples:
        • human—increase or decrease in population, land-use change in tropical forests
        • natural processes—hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes, floods
  4. Evaluate spatial patterns and the demographic structure of population on Earth’s surface in terms of density, dispersion, growth and mortality rates, natural increase, and doubling time.
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • population structure—age and sex distribution using population pyramids
      • special patterns—major population clusters
    • Predicting reasons and consequences of migration, including push and pull factors
      • Examples:
        • push factors —politics, war, famine
        • pull factors—potential jobs, family
  5. Explain how cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions, including religious structures, agricultural patterns, ethnic enclaves, ethnic restaurants, and the spread of Islam.
    E G H CG
     
  6. Illustrate how primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities have specific functions and spatial patterns.
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • primary—forestry, agriculture, mining
      • secondary—manufacturing furniture, grinding coffee beans, assembling automobiles
      • tertiary—selling furniture, selling coffee latte, selling automobiles
    • Comparing one location over another for production of goods and services
      • Examples: fast food restaurants in highly accessible locations, medical offices near hospitals, legal offices near courthouses, industries near major transportation routes
    • Analyzing the impact of economic interdependence and globalization on places and their populations
      • Examples: seed corn produced in Iowa and planted in South America; silicon chips manufactured in California and installed in a computer made in China that is purchased in Australia
    • Explaining why countries enter into global trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), the European Union (EU), the Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  7. Classify spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world, including types and sizes of settlement patterns.
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • types—linear, clustered, grid 
      • sizes—large urban, small urban, and rural areas
    • Explaining human activities that resulted in the development of settlements at particular locations due to trade, political importance, or natural resources
      • Examples: Timbuktu near caravan routes; Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and Birmingham, Alabama, as manufacturing centers near coal and iron ore deposits; Singapore near a major ocean transportation corridor 
    • Describing settlement patterns in association with the location of resources
      • Examples: fall line settlements near waterfalls used as a source of energy for mills, European industrial settlements near coal seams, spatial arrangement of towns and cities in North American Corn Belt settlements
    • Describing ways in which urban areas interact and influence surrounding regions
      • Examples: daily commuters from nearby regions; communication centers that service nearby and distant locations through television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet; regional specialization in services or production
  8. Determine political, military, cultural, and economic forces that contribute to cooperation and conflict among people.
    E G H CG
    • Identifying political boundaries based on physical and human systems
      • Examples: 
        • physical systems—rivers as boundaries between counties
        • human systems—streets as boundaries     between local government units
    • Identifying effects of cooperation among countries in controlling territories
      • Examples: Great Lakes environmental management by United States and Canada, United Nations (UN) Heritage sites and host countries, Antarctic Treaty on scientific research
    • Describing the eruption of territorial conflicts over borders, resources, land use, and ethnic and nationalistic identity
      • Examples: India and Pakistan conflict over Jammu and Kashmir, the West Bank, the Sudan, Somalia piracy, ocean fishing and mineral rights, local land-use disputes
  9. Explain how human actions modify the physical environment within and between places, including how human induced changes affect the environment.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • within places—construction of dams and downstream water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and aquatic ecosystems
      • between places—urban heat islands and global climate change, desertification and land degradation, pollution and ozone depletion
  10. Explain how human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions. 
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: farming practices in different regions, including slash-and-burn agriculture, terrace farming, and center-pivot irrigation
    • Identifying types, locations, and characteristics of natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and mudslides
    • Differentiating ways people prepare for and respond to natural hazards, including building storm shelters, conducting fire and tornado drills, and establishing building codes for construction
  11. Explain the cultural concept of natural resources and changes in spatial distribution, quantity, and quality through time and by location. 
    E G H CG
     
    • Evaluating various cultural viewpoints regarding the use or value of natural resources
      • Examples: salt and gold as valued commodities, petroleum product use and the invention of the internal combustion engine
    • Identifying issues regarding depletion of nonrenewable resources and the sustainability of renewable resources
      • Examples: ocean shelf and Arctic exploration for petroleum, hybrid engines in cars, wind-powered generators, solar collection panels
  12. Explain geographic contexts that influenced historical events.  
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • physical features—fall line, Cumberland Gap, Westward Expansion in the United States, weather conditions at Valley Forge and the outcome of the American Revolution, role of  ocean currents and winds during exploration by Christopher Columbus
      • environmental issues—boundary disputes, ownership of ocean resources, revitalization of downtown areas

Seventh Grade

Civics

The goal of education in civics and government is informed, responsible participation in political life by competent citizens committed to the fundamental values and principles of the constitutional democracy that established the republic of the United States of America.  These standards incorporate the strands of economics, geography, history, and civics and government with an obvious emphasis on political ideology.  They address representative democracy, individual rights and freedoms, law, personal finance, and civic responsibilities.

Students at this age should be able to assume more responsibilities in their family, school, and community roles.  To address this concern, students are given opportunities to apply civic knowledge to problem-based learning situations in the community and to other activities that foster increased personal responsibility.

The classroom environment should provide students with numerous opportunities to participate in instruction that incorporates a variety of formats and learning tools, including role playing, debate, and hands-on activities as well as the use of graphic organizers, text, charts, and graphs.  Students should have multiple opportunities for listening, reading, and writing activities as well as group and individual projects.  Culminating projects ensure that students apply their civic knowledge and skills to understand local, national, and international issues.

Students will:

  1. Compare influences of ancient Greece, the Roman Republic, the Judeo-Christian tradition, the Magna Carta, federalism, the Mayflower Compact, the English Bill of Rights, the House of Burgesses, and the Petition of Rights on the government of the United States.
    E G H CG
       
  2. Explain essential characteristics of the political system of the United States, including the organization and functions of political parties and the process of selecting political leaders.
    E G H CG
       
    • Describing the influence of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Niccolò Machiavelli, Charles de Montesquieu, and Voltaire on the political system of the United States
  3. Compare the government of the United States with other governmental systems, including monarchy, limited monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, and pure democracy. 
    E G H CG
       
  4. Describe structures of state and local governments in the United States, including major Alabama offices and officeholders 
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing how local and state governments are funded
  5. Compare duties and functions of members of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama’s local and state governments and of the national government. 
    E G H CG
     
    • Locating political and geographic districts of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama’s local and state government and of the national government 
    • Describing the organization and jurisdiction of courts at the local, state, and national levels within the judicial system of the United States
    • Explaining concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances among the three branches of state and national governments
  6. Explain the importance of juvenile, adult, civil, and criminal laws within the judicial system of the United States.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining rights of citizens as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights under the Constitution of the United States
    • Explaining what is meant by the term rule of law
    • Justifying consequences of committing a civil or criminal offense
    • Contrasting juvenile and adult laws at local, state, and federal levels
  7. Determine how people organize economic systems to address basic economic questions regarding which goods and services will be produced, how they will be distributed, and who will consume them.
    E G H CG
     
    • Using economic concepts to explain historical and current developments and issues in global, national, or local contexts
      • Examples: increase in oil prices resulting from supply and demand
    • Analyzing agriculture, tourism, and urban growth in Alabama for their impact on economic development 
  8. Appraise the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in the economy of the United States regarding scarcity, opportunity cost, trade-off decision making, and the stock market.
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing effects of government policies on the free market
    • Identifying laws protecting rights of consumers and avenues of recourse when those rights are violated
    • Comparing economic systems, including market, command, and traditional
  9. Apply principles of money management to the preparation of a personal budget that addresses housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, insurance, checking and savings accounts, loans, investments, credit, and comparison shopping.
    E G H CG
       
  10. Describe individual and civic responsibilities of citizens of the United States.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:
      • individual—respect for rights of others, self-discipline, negotiation, compromise, fiscal responsibility
      • civic—respect for law, patriotism, participation in political process, fiscal responsibility
    • Differentiating rights, privileges, duties, and responsibilities between citizens and noncitizens
    • Explaining how United States’ citizenship is acquired by immigrants
    • Explaining character traits that are beneficial to individuals and society
      • Examples: honesty, courage, compassion, civility, loyalty
  11. Compare changes in social and economic conditions in the United States during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • social—family values, peer pressure, education opportunities, women in the workplace
      • economic—career opportunities, disposable income, change in consumption of goods and  services
    • Determining benefits of Alabama’s role in world trade 
    • Tracing the political and social impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to the present, including Alabama’s role 
  12. Defend how the United States can be improved by individual and collective participation in civic and community activities.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying options for civic and community act
      • Examples: investigating the feasibility of a specific solution to a traffic problem, developing a plan for construction of a subdivision, using maps to make and justify decisions about best locations for public facilities
    • Determining ways to participate in the political process
      • Examples: voting, running for office, serving on a jury, writing letters, being involved in political parties and political campaigns 
  13. Identify contemporary American issues since 2001, including the establishment of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the enactment of the Patriot Act of 2001, and the impact of media analysis.
    E G H CG
         

Eighth Grade

World History to 1500

Students in the eighth grade can be described as curious and independent learners who are discovering who they are and determining their place in the world.  They are asserting their independence from adults and are becoming more reliant on their peers.  These students need to be allowed to develop their independence with a great amount of guidance.  Through exposure to various media and first-hand experiences, students are becoming more aware of events on a global scale and are learning how these events affect them.

The study of world history in Grade 8 addresses the time period from prehistoric man to the 1500s.  Content standards for this grade incorporate the strands of economics, geography, history, and political science, with an emphasis on the history and geography strands.  This course covers the migrations of early peoples, the rise of civilizations, the establishment of governments and religions, the growth of economic systems, and the ways in which these events shaped Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.  Unique to this course are the experiences that provide for the study of the ways human beings view themselves over time.  The prevailing use of terms to describe the Gregorian calendar is B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (Anno Domini, Latin for “in the year of our Lord”).  The terms B.C.E. (before the Common Era) and C.E. (in the Common Era) are beginning to appear in some schools of theology, state and national assessments, and in national history standards.  The use of the abbreviations B.C.E. and C.E., also based on the Gregorian calendar, does not, in any way, diminish/negate the importance of the abbreviations B.C. and A.D.

To address the independent and curious nature of eighth graders, instruction is designed to actively involve students in critical thinking and exchange of ideas, including critical evaluation, interpretation, reasoning, and deduction.  Instruction of this nature can best be accomplished through the use of electronic media such as the Internet, videos, and television as well as by participation in small-group and individual activities.

Students will:

  1. Explain how artifacts and other archaeological findings provide evidence of the nature and movement of prehistoric groups of people.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: cave paintings, Ice Man, Lucy, fossils, pottery
    • Identifying the founding of Rome as the basis of the calendar established by Julius Caesar, which was used in early Western civilization for over a thousand years
    • Identifying the birth of Christ as the basis of the Gregorian calendar used in the United States since its beginning and in most countries of the world today, signified by B.C. and A.D.
    • Using vocabulary terms other than B.C. and A.D. to describe time
      • Examples: B.C.E., C.E
    • Identifying terms used to describe characteristics of early societies and family structures
      • Examples: monogamous, polygamous, nomadic
  2. Analyze characteristics of early civilizations in respect to technology, division of labor, government, calendar, and writings.
    E G H CG
    • Comparing significant features of civilizations that developed in the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, Indus, and Huang He River valleys
      • Examples: natural environment, urban development, social hierarchy, written language, ethical and religious belief system, government and military institutions, economic systems
    • Identifying on a map locations of cultural hearths of early civilizations
      • Examples: Mesopotamia, Nile Valley
  3. Compare the development of early world religions, philosophies, and their key tenets.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples: Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Greek and Roman gods
    • Identifying cultural contributions of early world religions and philosophies
      • Examples: Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Greek and Roman gods, Phoenicians
  4. Identify cultural contributions of Classical Greece, including politics, intellectual life, arts, literature, architecture, and science.
    E G H CG
       
  5. Describe the role of Alexander the Great in the Hellenistic world.
    E G H CG
    • Examples: serving as political and military leader, encouraging cultural interaction, allowing religious diversity
    • Defining boundaries of Alexander the Great’s empire and its economic impact
    • Identifying reasons for the separation of Alexander the Great’s empire into successor kingdoms
    • Evaluating major contributions of Hellenistic art, philosophy, science, and political thought
  6. Trace the expansion of the Roman Republic and its transformation into an empire, including key geographic, political, and economic elements.
    E G H CG
    • Examples:
      • expansion—illustrating the spread of Roman influence with charts, graphs, timelines, or maps;
      • transformation—noting reforms of Augustus, listing effects of Pax Romana
    • Interpreting spatial distributions and patterns of the Roman Republic using geographic tools and technologies
  7. Describe the widespread impact of the Roman Empire.
    E G H CG
    • Example: spread of Roman law and political theory, citizenship and slavery, architecture and engineering, religions, sculpture and paintings, literature, and the Latin language
    • Tracing important aspects of the diffusion of Christianity, including its relationship to Judaism, missionary impulse, organizational development, transition from persecution to acceptance in the Roman Empire, and church doctrine
    • Explaining the role of economics, societal changes, Christianity, political and military problems, external factors, and the size and diversity of the Roman Empire in its decline and fall
  8. Describe the development of a classical civilization in India and China.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples:
      • India—religions, arts and literature, philosophies, empires, caste system;
      • China—religions, politics, centrality of the family, Zhou and Han Dynasties, inventions, economic impact of the Silk Road and European trade, dynastic transitions
    • Identifying the effect of the monsoons on India
    • Identifying landforms and climate regions of China
      • Example: marking landforms and climate regions of China on a map
  9. Describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire, its institutions, and its legacy, including the influence of the Emperors Constantine and Justinian, and the effect of the Byzantine Empire upon art, religion, architecture, and law.
    E G H CG
       
    • Identifying factors leading to the establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church
  10. Trace the development of the early Russian state and the expansion of its trade systems.
    E G H CG
    • Examples: rise of Kiev and Muscovy, conversion to Orthodox Christianity, movement of peoples of Central Asia, Mongol conquest, rise of czars
  11. Describe early Islamic civilizations, including the development of religious, social, and political systems.
    E G H CG
     
    • Tracing the spread of Islamic ideas through invasion and conquest throughout the Middle East, northern Africa, and western Europe
  12. Describe China’s influence on culture, politics, and economics in Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • culture—describing the influence on art, architecture,language, and religion;
      • politics—describing changes in civil service; economics—introducing patterns of trade
  13. Compare the African civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai to include their geography, religions, slave trade, economic systems, empires, and cultures.
    E G H CG
    • Tracing the spread of language, religion, and customs from one African civilization to another
    • Illustrating the impact of trade among Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
      • Examples: using map symbols, interpreting distribution maps, creating a timeline
  14. Describe key aspects of pre-Columbian cultures in the Americas including the Olmecs, Mayans, Aztecs, Incas, and North American tribes.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: pyramids, wars among pre-Columbian people, religious rituals, irrigation, Iroquois Confederacy
    • Locating on a map sites of pre-Columbian cultures
      • Examples: Mayan, Inca, Inuit, Creek, Cherokee
  15. Describe military and governmental events that shaped Europe in the early Middle Ages (600-1000).
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: invasions, military leaders
    • Describing the role of the early medieval church
    • Describing the impact of new agricultural methods on manorialism and feudalism
  16. Describe major cultural changes in Western Europe in the High Middle Ages (1000-1350).
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: the Church, scholasticism, Crusades
    • Describing changing roles of church and governmental leadership
    • Comparing political developments in France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire, including the signing of the Magna Carta
    • Describing the growth of trade and towns resulting in the rise of the middle class
  17. Explain how events and conditions fostered political and economic changes in the late Middle Ages and led to the origins of the Renaissance.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: Crusades, Hundred Years’ War, Black Death, rise of middle class, commercial prosperity
    • Identifying changes in the arts, architecture, literature, and science in the late Middle Ages

NINTH – TWELFTH GRADE OVERVIEW

Ninth- through twelfth-grade students are sophisticated learners who are developmentally capable of abstract reasoning, critical thinking, and creative problem solving.  At the high school level, a comprehensive curriculum of fundamental social studies content builds on prior knowledge gained in earlier grades to challenge students to be knowledgeable and engaged citizens.  The four strands of economics, geography, history, and civics and government are interwoven into the Grades 9-12 social studies program to help students further develop the essential base of knowledge and critical-thinking skills required for responsible civic participation at local, state, and national levels.  All social studies content at the high school level is aligned with standards addressed by national social studies organizations.

All Alabama high school students must earn four credits in social studies for graduation.  As part of these requirements, students must complete the one-credit World History:  1500 to the Present course, the one-credit United States History I course, the one-credit United States History II course, the half-credit United States Government course, and the half-credit Economics course.  Core courses described in this document provide fundamental content to be learned by all high school students that enables them to become responsible citizens and active participants in local, state, national, and global societies.  In addition to the courses required for Grades 9-12, local school systems may offer elective social studies courses.  These may include, but are not limited to, a study of psychology, sociology, contemporary and geography.  Content for four elective courses intended to enrich development of civic responsibility is included in Appendix A of this document.

High school students learn best in an effective instructional environment that provides opportunities for authentic learning through analyzing and debating complex issues, conducting social science research, participating in civic affairs, and developing historical-thinking skills.  Students also benefit from differentiated instruction that includes student presentations, use of primary sources, written analyses of information, collaborative group activities, simulations, and interactions with electronic and print media.

Ninth Grade

World History: 1500 to the Present

In the ninth grade, students develop strong personal opinions, beliefs, or positions on current issues and events of the past.  Teachers capitalize on this characteristic to stress the importance of grounding positions and opinions in knowledge.  As students transition from middle school to high school, they can understand and use complex concepts such as adaptation, assimilation, acculturation, diffusion, and historical knowledge and inquiry to study the past, its relationship to the present, and its impact on the future.  Students in Grade 9 are able to think critically and logically about personal, national, and global issues.  This enables them to apply and utilize their knowledge and curiosity to develop informed opinions about issues such as the quest for peace, human rights, trade, and global ecology.

At the ninth-grade level, students continue the study of world history from 1500 to the present.  Critical thinking and analysis are important in this course.  Through historical inquiry, students gain an understanding and appreciation of history as a story of people much like themselves and become increasingly able to understand global interdependence and connections among world societies.  The course directs students to think critically about the forces that combine to shape the world today.  It allows them to analyze development and changes in the European, Asian, African, and American civilizations and ways in which the interactions of these cultures have influenced the formation of today’s world.  Knowledge of other cultures enables students to develop a better appreciation of the unique American heritage of liberty.  Geographic concepts increase learners’ comprehension of global connections as they expand their knowledge and understanding of a wide variety of cultures, both historical and contemporary.

Ninth-grade students continue to have preferred learning styles.  Therefore, the use of a variety of instructional strategies and techniques is effective in helping students gain the knowledge and skills this course requires.  Well-equipped classrooms include a variety of visual stimuli such as charts, globes, graphs, and maps.  Multiple opportunities are provided for students to participate in the educational process through the use of electronic and print media and small-group interaction.

Students will:

  1. Describe developments in Italy and Northern Europe during the Renaissance period with respect to humanism, arts and literature, intellectual development, increased trade, and advances in technology.
    E G H CG
         
  2. Describe the role of mercantilism and imperialism in European exploration and colonization in the sixteenth century, including the Columbian Exchange.
    E G H CG
    • Describing the impact of the Commercial Revolution on European society
    • Identifying major ocean currents, wind patterns, landforms, and climates affecting European exploration
      • Example: marking ocean currents and wind patterns on a map
  3. Explain causes of the Reformation and its impact, including tensions between religious and secular authorities, reformers and doctrines, the Counter-Reformation, the English Reformation, and wars of religion.
    E G H CG
         
  4. Explain the relationship between physical geography and cultural development in India, Africa, Japan, and China in the early Global Age, including trade and travel, natural resources, and movement and isolation of peoples and ideas.
    E G H CG
     
    • Depicting the general location of, size of, and distance between regions in the early Global Age
      • Example: drawing sketch maps
  5. Describe the rise of absolutism and constitutionalism and their impact on European nations.
    E G H CG
         
    • Contrasting philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the belief in the divine right of kings
    • Comparing absolutism as it developed in France, Russia, and Prussia, including the reigns of Louis XIV, Peter the Great, and Frederick the Great
    • Identifying major provisions of the Petition of Rights and the English Bill of Rights
  6. Identify significant ideas and achievements of scientists and philosophers of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment.
    E G H CG
         
    • Examples:
      • Scientific Revolution—astronomical theories of Copernicus and Galileo, Newton’s law of gravity;
      • Age of Enlightenment—philosophies of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau
  7. Describe the impact of the French Revolution on Europe, including political evolution, social evolution, and diffusion of nationalism and liberalism.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying causes of the French Revolution
    • Describing the influence of the American Revolution upon the French Revolution
    • Identifying objectives of different groups participating in the French Revolution
    • Describing the role of Napoleon as an empire builder
  8. Compare revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Haiti, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying the location of countries in Latin America
  9. Describe the impact of technological inventions, conditions of labor, and the economic theories of capitalism, liberalism, socialism, and Marxism during the Industrial Revolution on the economics, society, and politics of Europe.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying important inventors in Europe during the Industrial Revolution
    • Comparing the Industrial Revolution in England with later revolutions in Europe
  10. Describe the influence of urbanization during the nineteenth century on the Western World.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: interaction with the environment, provisions for public health, increased opportunities for upward mobility, changes in social stratification, development of Romanticism and Realism, development of Impressionism and Cubism
    • Describing the search for political democracy and social justice in the Western World
      • Examples: European Revolution of 1848, slavery and emancipation in the United States, emancipation of serfs in Russia, universal manhood suffrage, women’s suffrage
  11. Describe the impact of European nationalism and Western imperialism as forces of global transformation, including the unification of Italy and Germany, the rise of Japan’s power in East Asia, economic roots of imperialism, imperialist ideology, colonialism and national rivalries, and United States imperialism.
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing resistance to European imperialism in Africa, Japan, and China
  12. Explain causes and consequences of World War I, including imperialism, militarism, nationalism, and the alliance system.
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing the rise of Communism in Russia during World War I
      • Examples: return of Vladimir Lenin, rise of Bolsheviks
    • Describing military technology used during World War I
    • Identifying problems created by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919
      • Examples: Germany’s reparations and war guilt, international controversy over the League of Nations
    • Identifying alliances during World War I and boundary changes after World War I
  13. Explain challenges of the post-World War I period.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples: 1920s cultural disillusionment, colonial rebellion and turmoil in Ireland and India, attempts to achieve political stability in Europe
    • Identifying causes of the Great Depression
    • Characterizing the global impact of the Great Depression
  14. Describe causes and consequences of World War II.
    E G H CG
     
    • Examples:
      • causes—unanswered aggression, Axis goal of world conquest;
      • consequences—changes in political boundaries; Allied goals; lasting issues such as the Holocaust, Atomic Age, and Nuremberg Trials
    • Explaining the rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japan
    • Identifying turning points of World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters
    • Depicting geographic locations of world events between 1939 and 194
    • Identifying on a map changes in national borders as a result of World War II
  15. Describe post-World War II realignment and reconstruction in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, including the end of colonial empires.
    E G H CG
       
    • Examples: reconstruction of Japan; nationalism in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Africa; Chinese Communist Revolution; creation of Jewish state of Israel; Cuban Revolution; Central American conflicts
    • Explaining origins of the Cold War
      • Examples: Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, “Iron Curtain,” Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), Warsaw Pact
    • Tracing the progression of the Cold War
      • Examples: nuclear weapons, European power struggles, Korean War, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War
  16. Describe the role of nationalism, militarism, and civil war in today’s world, including the use of terrorism and modern weapons at the close of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries.
    E G H CG
    • Describing the collapse of the Soviet Empire and Russia’s struggle for democracy, free markets, and economic recovery and the roles of Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and Boris Yeltsin
      • Examples: economic failures, demands for national and human rights, resistance from Eastern Europe, reunification of Germany
    • Describing effects of internal conflict, nationalism, and enmity in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Chile, the Middle East, Somalia and Rwanda, Cambodia, and the Balkans
    • Characterizing the War on Terrorism, including the significance of the Iran Hostage Crisis; the Gulf Wars; the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
    • Depicting geographic locations of major world events from 1945 to the present
  17. Describe emerging democracies from the late twentieth century to the present.
    E G H CG
     
    • Discussing problems and opportunities involving science, technology, and the environment in the late twentieth century
      • Examples: genetic engineering, space exploration
    • Identifying problems involving civil liberties and human rights from 1945 to the present and ways they have been addressed
    • Relating economic changes to social changes in countries adopting democratic forms of government

Tenth Grade

United States History I: Beginnings to the industrial Revolution

The study of the early history of the United States in Grade 10 forms the foundation for understanding the development and principles of modern American society.  Beginning with the earliest explorations of American continents, this course offers a chronological study of major events, issues, movements, individuals, and diverse groups of people in the United States from a national and an Alabama perspective.  In addition to gaining essential knowledge regarding this period of our nation’s past, students develop historical-thinking skills, which include chronological thinking, historical comprehension, historical analysis and interpretation, historical research, and analysis and decision making.  Content standards build on foundational knowledge skills learned in the thematic study of world history in Grade 8.  In addition, content rigor is designed to be developmentally appropriate in order to prepare students for increasingly challenging courses at the high school level.

Students in Grade10 benefit from a classroom environment that provides activities to facilitate historical inquiry.  Teachers challenge students with a variety of instructional methods to enhance the development of critical-thinking skills.  Methods include analysis of historical documents, map-reading activities, and the use of current technologies.  Students are encouraged to explore historical topics and begin thinking like historians while studying key events, people, and ideas in this period of American history.

Students will:

  1. Compare effects of economic, geographic, social, and political conditions before and after European explorations of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries on Europeans, American colonists, Africans, and indigenous Americans.
    E G H CG
    • Describing the influence of the Crusades, Renaissance, and Reformation on European exploration
    • Comparing European motives for establishing colonies, including mercantilism, religious persecution, poverty, oppression, and new opportunities
    • Analyzing the course of the Columbian Exchange for its impact on the global economy
    • Explaining triangular trade and the development of slavery in the colonies
  2. Compare regional differences among early New England, Middle, and Southern colonies regarding economics, geography, culture, government, and American Indian relations.
    E G H CG
    • Explaining the role of essential documents in the establishment of colonial governments, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact
    • Explaining the significance of the House of Burgesses and New England town meetings in colonial politics
    • Describing the impact of the Great Awakening on colonial society
  3. Trace the chronology of events leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, passage of the Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre, passage of the Intolerable Acts, the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the publication of Common Sense, and the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
    E G H CG
    • Explaining the role of key revolutionary leaders, including George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, Crispus Attucks, and the Marquis de Lafayette
    • Explaining the significance of revolutionary battles, including Bunker Hill, Trenton, Saratoga, and Yorktown
    • Summarizing major ideas of the Declaration of Independence, including theories of John Locke, Charles de Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau       
    • Comparing perspectives of differing groups in society and their roles in the American Revolution, including men, women, white settlers, free and enslaved African Americans, and American Indians
    • Describing how provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 affected relations of the United States with European nations and American Indians
  4. Describe the political system of the United States based on the Constitution of the United States.
    E G H CG
     
    • Interpreting the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States; separation of powers; federal system; elastic clause; the Bill of Rights; and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments as key elements of the Constitution of the United States
    • Describing inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation
    • Distinguishing personalities, issues, ideologies, and compromises related to the Constitutional Convention and the ratification of the Constitution of the United States, including the role of the Federalist papers
    • Identifying factors leading to the development and establishment of political parties, including Alexander Hamilton’s economic policies, conflicting views of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, George Washington’s Farewell Address, and the election of 1800
  5. Explain key cases that helped shape the United States Supreme Court, including Marbury versus Madison, McCullough versus Maryland, and Cherokee Nation versus Georgia.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining concepts of loose and strict interpretations of the Constitution of the United States
  6. Describe relations of the United States with Britain and France from 1781 to 1823, including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.
    E G H CG
       
  7. Describe causes, courses, and consequences of United States’ expansionism prior to the Civil War, including the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the Northwest Ordinance of 1785, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the Louisiana Purchase, the Indian Removal Act, the Trail of Tears, Manifest Destiny, the Mexican War and Cession, Texas Independence, the acquisition of Oregon, the California Gold Rush, and the Western Trails.
    E G H CG
  8. Compare major events in Alabama from 1781 to 1823, including statehood as part of the expanding nation, acquisition of land, settlement, and the Creek War, to those of the developing nation.  

    E G H CG
  9. Explain dynamics of economic nationalism during the Era of Good Feelings, including transportation systems, Henry Clay’s American System, slavery and the emergence of the plantation system, and the beginning of industrialism in the Northeast.
    E G H CG
     
  10. Analyze key ideas of Jacksonian Democracy for their impact on political participation, political parties, and constitutional government.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining the spoils system, nullification, extension of voting rights, the Indian Removal Act, and the common man ideal
  11. Evaluate the impact of American social and political reform on the emergence of a distinct culture.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the emergence of a national identity
    • Explaining the emergence of uniquely American writers
      • Examples: James Fenimore Cooper, Henry David Thoreau, Edgar Allen Poe
    • Explaining the influence of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Dorothea Lynde Dix, and Susan B. Anthony on the development of social reform movements prior to the Civil War
  12. Describe the founding of the first abolitionist societies by Benjamin Rush and Benjamin Franklin and the role played by later critics of slavery, including William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, Angelina and Sarah Grimké, Henry David Thoreau, and Charles Sumner.
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing the rise of religious movements in opposition to slavery, including objections of the Quakers
    • Explaining the importance of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 that banned slavery in new states north of the Ohio River
    • Describing the rise of the Underground Railroad and its leaders, including Harriet Tubman and the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, on the abolitionist movement
  13. Summarize major legislation and court decisions from 1800 to 1861 that led to increasing sectionalism, including the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Acts, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision.
    E G H CG
    • Describing Alabama’s role in the developing sectionalism of the United States from 1819 to 1861, including participation in slavery, secession, and the Indian War, and reliance on cotton 
    • Analyzing the Westward Expansion from 1803 to 1861 to determine its effect on sectionalism, including the Louisiana Purchase, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession
    • Describing tariff debates and the nullification crisis between 1800 and 1861
    • Analyzing the formation of the Republican Party for its impact on the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States
  14. Describe how the Civil War influenced the United States, including the Anaconda Plan and the major battles of Bull Run, Antietam, Vicksburg, and Gettysburg and Sherman’s March to the Sea.
    E G H CG
    • Identifying key Northern and Southern Civil War personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson, and William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Analyzing the impact of the division of the nation during the Civil War regarding resources, population distribution, and transportation
    • Explaining reasons for border states’ remaining in the Union during the Civil War
    • Describing nonmilitary events and life during the Civil War, including the Homestead Act, the Morrill Act, Northern draft riots, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the Gettysburg Address
    • Describing the role of women in American society during the Civil War, including efforts made by Elizabeth Blackwell and Clara Barton
    • Tracing Alabama’s involvement in the Civil War 
  15. Compare congressional and presidential reconstruction plans, including African-American political participation.
    E G H CG
    • Tracing economic changes in the post-Civil War period for whites and African Americans in the North and South, including the effectiveness of the Freedmen’s Bureau
    • Describing social restructuring of the South, including Southern military districts, the role of carpetbaggers and scalawags, the creation of the black codes, and the Ku Klux Klan
    • Describing the Compromise of 1877
    • Summarizing post-Civil War constitutional amendments, including the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments
    • Explaining causes for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
    • Explaining the impact of Jim Crow laws and Plessey versus Ferguson on the social and political structure of the New South after Reconstruction
    • Analyzing political and social motives that shaped the Constitution of Alabama of 1901 to determine their long- term effect on politics and economics in Alabama 

Eleventh Grade

United States History II:  Industrial Revolution to the Present

This course builds upon the foundation of knowledge and skills gained in the Grade 9 and 10 United States history curriculum by providing a study of the modern history of the United States that expands students’ understanding of the principles of American society.  Beginning with America’s shift to a more industrialized society, this course offers a chronological study through the twenty-first century of major events, issues, movements, individuals, and diverse groups of people in the United States from a national and an Alabama perspective.  While learning essential knowledge regarding this period in America’s past, students develop historical-thinking skills, including chronological thinking, historical comprehension, historical analysis and interpretation, historical research, and analysis and decision making.  In addition, content rigor is developmentally appropriate and prepares students for increasingly challenging courses at the high school level.

Students in Grade 11 benefit from a classroom environment that provides activities to facilitate historical inquiry.  Teachers challenge students with a variety of instructional methods to enhance development of critical-thinking skills.  Methods include analysis of historical documents, map-reading activities, creative problem solving, simulations, and use of current technologies such as interactive digital video sources.  Students are encouraged to explore historical topics and continue thinking like historians while studying key events, people, and ideas in this period of American history.

Students will:

  1. Explain the transition of the United States from an agrarian society to an industrial nation prior to World War I.
    E G H CG
    • Describing the impact of Manifest Destiny on the economic and technological development of the post-Civil War West, including mining, the cattle industry, and the transcontinental railroad
    • Identifying the changing role of the American farmer, including the establishment of the Grange movement and the Populist Party and agrarian rebellion over currency issues
    • Evaluating the Dawes Act for its effect on tribal identity, land ownership, and assimilation of American Indians between Reconstruction and World War I
    • Comparing population percentages, motives, and settlement patterns of immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America, including the Chinese Immigration Act regarding immigration quota
    • Interpreting the impact of change from workshop to factory on workers’ lives, including the New Industrial Age from 1870 to 1900, the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the Pullman Strike, the Haymarket Square Riot, and the impact of John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Samuel Gompers, Eugene V. Debs, A. Philip Randolph, and Thomas Alva Edison
  2. Evaluate social and political origins, accomplishments, and limitations of Progressivism.
    E G H CG
     
    • Explaining the impact of the Populist Movement on the role of the federal government in American society
    • Assessing the impact of muckrakers on public opinion during the Progressive movement, including Upton Sinclair, Jacob A. Riis, and Ida M. Tarbell
    • Explaining national legislation affecting the Progressive movement, including the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act
    • Determining the influence of the Niagara Movement, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, and Carter G. Woodson on the Progressive Era
    • Assessing the significance of the public education movement initiated by Horace Mann
    • Comparing the presidential leadership of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson in obtaining passage of measures regarding trust-busting, the Hepburn Act, the Pure Food and Drug Act, the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Reserve Act, and conservation
  3. Explain the United States’ changing role in the early twentieth century as a world power.
    E G H CG
    • Describing causes of the Spanish-American War, including yellow journalism, the sinking of the Battleship USS Maine, and economic interests in Cuba
    • Identifying the role of the Rough Riders on the iconic status of President Theodore Roosevelt
    • Describing consequences of the Spanish-American War, including the Treaty of Paris of 1898, insurgency in the Philippines, and territorial expansion in the Pacific and Caribbean
    • Analyzing the involvement of the United States in the Hawaiian Islands for economic and imperialistic interests
    • Appraising Alabama’s contributions to the United States between Reconstruction and World War I, including those of William Crawford Gorgas, Joseph Wheeler, and John Tyler Morgan 
    • Evaluating the role of the Open Door policy and the Roosevelt Corollary on America’s expanding economic and geographic interests
    • Comparing the executive leadership represented by William Howard Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy
  4. Describe causes, events, and the impact of military involvement of the United States in World War I, including mobilization and economic and political changes.
    E G H CG
    • Identifying the role of militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism in World War I
    • Explaining controversies over the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and the League of Nations
    • Explaining how the Treaty of Versailles led to worsening economic and political conditions in Europe, which provided opportunities for the rise of fascist states in Germany, Italy, and Spain
    • Comparing short- and long-term effects of changing boundaries in pre- and post-World War I in Europe and the Middle East, leading to the creation of new countries
  5. Evaluate the impact of social changes and the influence of key figures in the United States from World War I through the 1920s, including Prohibition, the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, the Scopes Trial, limits on immigration, Ku Klux Klan activities, the Red Scare, Susan B. Anthony, Margaret Sanger, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the Harlem Renaissance, the Great Migration, W. C. Handy, the Jazz Age, and Zelda Fitzgerald. 
    E G H CG
     
    • Analyzing radio, movies, newspapers, and popular magazines for their impact on the creation of mass culture
    • Analyzing works of major American artists and writers, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Langston Hughes, and H. L. Mencken, to characterize the era of the 1920s
    • Determining the relationship between technological innovations and the creation of increased leisure time
  6. Describe social and economic conditions from the 1920s through the Great Depression regarding factors leading to a deepening crisis, including the collapse of the farming economy and the stock market crash of 1929.
    E G H CG
     
    • Assessing effects of overproduction, stock market speculation, and restrictive monetary policies on the pending economic crisis
    • Describing the impact of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act on the global economy and the resulting worldwide depression
    • Identifying notable authors of the 1920s, including John Steinbeck, William Faulkner, and Zora Neale Hurston
    • Analyzing the Great Depression for its impact on the American family
  7. Explain strengths and weaknesses of the New Deal in managing problems of the Great Depression through relief, recovery, and reform programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and the Social Security Act.
    E G H CG
    • Analyzing conditions created by the Dust Bowl for their impact on migration patterns during the Great Depression
  8. Summarize events leading to World War II, including the militarization of the Rhineland, Germany’s seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia, Japan’s invasion of China, and the Rape of Nanjing.
    E G H CG
    • Analyzing the impact of fascism, Nazism, and communism on growing conflicts in Europe
    • Explaining the isolationist debate as it evolved from the 1920s to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent change in United States’ foreign policy
    • Identifying roles of significant World War II leaders  
      • Examples: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, George S. Patton, Sir Winston Churchill, Bernard Montgomery, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Emperor Hirohito, Hedeki Tōjō, Erwin Rommel, Adolf Hitler
    • Evaluating the impact of the Munich Pact and the failed British policy of appeasement resulting in the invasion of Poland
  9. Describe the significance of major battles, events, and consequences of World War II campaigns, including North Africa, Midway, Normandy, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, and Yalta and Potsdam Conferences.
    E G H CG
    • Locating on a map or globe the major battles of World War II and the extent of the Allied and Axis territorial expansion
    • Describing military strategies of World War II, including blitzkrieg, island-hopping, and amphibious landings
    • Explaining reasons for and results of dropping atomic bombs on Japan
    • Explaining events and consequences of war crimes committed during World War II, including the Holocaust, the Bataan Death March, the Nuremberg Trials, the post-war Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Genocide Convention
  10. Describe the impact of World War II on the lives of American citizens, including wartime economic measures, population shifts, growth in the middle class, growth of industrialization, advancements in science and technology, increased wealth in the African American community, racial and ethnic tensions, the G. I. Bill of Rights of 1944, and desegregation of the military.
    E G H CG
    • Describing Alabama’s participation in World War II, including the role of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Aliceville Prisoner of War (POW) camp, growth of the Port of Mobile, production of Birmingham steel, and the establishment of military bases 
  11. Describe the international role of the United States from 1945 through 1960 relative to the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Blockade, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
    E G H CG
    • Describing Cold War policies and issues, the domino theory, McCarthyism, and their consequences, including the institution of loyalty oaths under Harry S. Truman, the Alger Hiss case, the House Un-American Activities Committee, and the execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
    • Locating areas of conflict during the Cold War from 1945 to 1960, including East and West Germany, Hungary, Poland, Cuba, Korea, and China
  12. Describe major initiatives of the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson Administrations. 
    E G H CG
     
    • Describing Alabama’s role in the space program under the New Frontier 
    • Describing major foreign events and issues of the John F. Kennedy Administration, including construction of the Berlin Wall, the Bay of Pigs invasion, and the Cuban missile crisis
  13. Trace the course of the involvement of the United States in Vietnam from the 1950s to 1975, including the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the Tet Offensive, destabilization of Laos, secret bombings of Cambodia, and the fall of Saigon.
    E G H CG
     
    • Locating on a map or globe the divisions of Vietnam, the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and major battle sites
    • Describing the creation of North and South Vietnam
  14. Trace events of the modern Civil Rights Movement from post-World War II to 1970 that resulted in social and economic changes, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School, the March on Washington, Freedom Rides, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March. 
    E G H CG
    • Tracing the federal government’s involvement in the modern Civil Rights Movement, including the abolition of the poll tax, the nationalization of state militias, Brown versus Board of Education in 1954, the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Explaining contributions of individuals and groups to the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr., James Meredith, Medgar Evers, Thurgood Marshall, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the civil rights foot soldiers
    • Appraising contributions of persons and events in Alabama that influenced the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Rosa Parks, Autherine Lucy, John Patterson, George C. Wallace, Vivian Malone Jones, Fred Shuttlesworth, the Children’s March, and key local persons and events 
    • Describing the development of a Black Power movement, including the change in focus of the SNCC, the rise of Malcolm X, and Stokely Carmichael and the Black Panther movement
    • Describing the economic impact of African-American entrepreneurs on the modern Civil Rights Movement, including S. B. Fuller and A. G. Gaston
  15. Describe changing social and cultural conditions in the United States during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.
    E G H CG
     
  16. Describe significant foreign and domestic issues of presidential administrations from Richard M. Nixon to the present.
    E G H CG
    • Examples: Nixon’s policy of détente; Cambodia; Watergate scandal; pardon of Nixon; Iranian hostage situation; Reaganomics; Libyan crisis; end of the Cold War; Persian Gulf War; impeachment trial of William “Bill” Clinton; terrorist attack of September 11, 2001; Operation Iraqi Freedom; war in Afghanistan; election of the first African-American president, Barack Obama

Twelfth Grade

United States Government

United States Government is a one-semester required course for students in Grade 12.  The course goal is for students to develop the civic knowledge necessary for becoming active participants as citizens of this nation.  Achievement of this goal prepares students to engage as informed citizens through voting, serving on a jury, holding political office, and deliberating public policy.

In this course, students broaden knowledge and critical-thinking skills learned in Grades 9-11 and deepen their understanding of the origin, structure, and function of government at all levels.  Content focuses on intellectual, political, and economic factors that influenced the development of a republic based on rule of law, freedom of opportunity, individual liberty, and representative government.  Democratic principles that served as a foundation for the development of our nation are embedded in a detailed study of the Constitution of the United States, a key component of the course.

Twelfth-grade students are developing a sense of maturity necessary for analysis of the role of government in the lives of individuals and in the nation.  An effective instructional environment promotes critical thinking and research and provides opportunities for civic participation.  Classroom activities that include debate, creative problem solving, collaborative group work, and evaluation of electronic and print media foster long-term learning of content and encourage students to understand the value of their role as citizens in a democracy.

Students will:

  1. Explain historical and philosophical origins that shaped the government of the United States, including the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and the influence of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Charles de Montesquieu, Jean-Jaques Rousseau, and the Great Awakening.
    E G H CG
       
    • Comparing characteristics of limited and unlimited governments throughout the world, including constitutional, authoritarian, and totalitarian governments
      • Examples:
        • constitutional—United States
        • authoritarian—Iran
        • totalitarian—North Korea
  2. Summarize the significance of the First and Second Continental Congresses, the Declaration of Independence, Shays’ Rebellion, and the Articles of Confederation of 1781 on the writing and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of 1787 and the Bill of Rights of 1791.
    E G H CG
       
  3. Analyze major features of the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights for purposes, organization, functions, and principles, including rule of law, federalism, limited government, popular sovereignty, judicial review, separation of powers, and checks and balances.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining main ideas of the debate over ratification that included the Federalist papers
    • Analyzing the Bill of Rights for its application to historical and current issues
    • Outlining the formal process of amending the Constitution of the United States
  4. Explain how the federal system of the United States divides powers between national and state governments.
    E G H CG
     
    • Summarizing obligations that the Constitution of the United States places on a nation for the benefit of the states, including admitting new states and cooperative federalism
    • Evaluating the role of the national government in interstate relations
  5. Compare specific functions, organizations, and purposes of local and state governments, including implementing fiscal and monetary policies, ensuring personal security, and regulating transportation.
    E G H CG
     
    • Analyzing the Constitution of Alabama of 1901 to determine its impact on local funding and campaign funding 
    • Describing the influence of special interest groups on state government
  6. Analyze the expansion of suffrage for its effect on the political system of the United States, including suffrage for non-property owners, women, African Americans, and persons eighteen years of age.
    E G H CG
       
    • Describing implications of participation of large numbers of minorities and women in parties and campaigns
    • Analyzing the black codes, Jim Crow laws, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March for their impact on the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 
  7. Describe the process of local, state, and national elections, including the organization, role, and constituency of political parties.
    E G H CG
    • Explaining campaign funding and spending
    • Evaluating the impact of reapportionment, redistricting, and voter turnout on elections
  8. Describe functions and the development of special interest groups and campaign contributions by political action committees and their impact on state and national elections.
    E G H CG
     
    • Analyzing rulings by the United States Supreme Court, including Buckley versus Valeo, regarding campaign financing to determine the effect on the election process
  9. Trace the impact of the media on the political process and public opinion in the United States, including party press, penny press, print media, yellow journalism, radio, television, and electronic media.
    E G H CG
    • Describing regional differences in public opinion in the United States
    • Analyzing television and electronic media for their impact on the election process and campaign spending from the John F. Kennedy-Richard M. Nixon debate to the election of Barack Obama as President of the United States
    • Explaining the effect of attack advertisements on voter selection of candidates
  10. Evaluate roles political parties play in the functioning of the political system of the United States.
    E G H CG
       
    • Describing the role of third-party candidates in political elections in the United States
    • Explaining major characteristics of contemporary political parties in the United States, including the role of conventions, party leadership, formal and informal memberships, and regional strongholds
    • Describing the influence of political parties on individuals and elected officials, including the development of party machines, rise of independent voters, and disillusionment with party systems
  11. Evaluate constitutional provisions of the legislative branch of the government of the United States, including checks by the legislative branch on other branches of government.
    E G H CG
       
    • Comparing rules of operations and hierarchies of Congress, including roles of the Speaker of the House, the Senate pro tem, majority and minority leaders, and party whips
    • Identifying the significance of Congressional committee structure and types of committees
    • Tracing the legislative process, including types of votes and committee action, from a bill’s presentation to presidential action
  12. Evaluate constitutional provisions of the executive branch of the government of the United States, including checks by the executive branch on other branches of government and powers, duties as head of state and head of government, the electoral process, and the Twenty-fifth Amendment.
    E G H CG
       
    • Critiquing informal powers of the President of the United States, including press conferences, State of the Union addresses, total media access, head of party, and symbolic powers of the Oval Office
    • Identifying the influence of White House staff on the President of the United States
    • Ranking powers held by the President’s Cabinet, including roles of Cabinet secretaries, appropriations by Congress, appointment and confirmation, and operation of organization
    • Comparing diverse backgrounds, socioeconomic status, and levels of education of United States’ presidents
  13. Evaluate constitutional provisions of the judicial branch of government of the United States, including checks by the judicial branch on other branches of government, limits on judicial power, and the process by which cases are argued before the United States Supreme Court.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining the structure and jurisdiction of court systems of the United States, including lower courts and appellate courts
    • Identifying the impact of landmark United States Supreme Court cases on constitutional interpretation
      • Examples: Marbury versus Madison, Miranda versus Arizona, Tinker versus Des Moines, Gideon versus Wainwright, Reno versus American Civil Liberties Union, United States versus Nixon, McCulloch versus Maryland, Wallace versus Jaffree, Wyatt versus Stickney, and Powell versus Alabama 
    • Describing the shifting political balance of the court system, including the appointment process, the ideology of justices, influences on court decisions regarding executive and legislative opinion, public opinion, and the desire for impartiality
    • Contrasting strict and loose constructionist views of the Constitution of the United States
  14. Describe the role of citizens in American democracy, including the meaning, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship; due process and other rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States; and participation in the election process.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining how the balance between individual versus majority rule and state versus national authority is essential to the functioning of the American democratic society
      • Examples: majority rule and minority rights, liberty and equality, state and national authority in a federal system, civil disobedience and rule of law, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, relationship of religion and government
  15. Explain the role and consequences of domestic and foreign policy decisions, including scientific and technological advancements and humanitarian, cultural, economic, and political changes.
    E G H CG
    • Examples: isolationism versus internationalism, policy of containment, policy of détente, multilateralism, war on terrorism
    • Evaluating financial, political, and social costs of national security

Twelfth Grade

Economics

Economics is a one-semester required course for students in Grade 12 that addresses essential concepts necessary for students to completely and effectively participate in a complex global society.  Content encompasses both microeconomic and macroeconomic principles.  Key elements include the study of scarcity, supply and demand, market structures, the role of government, national income determination, money and the role of financial institutions, economic stabilization, and trade.  Students use knowledge and critical-thinking skills learned in previous social studies courses to analyze issues and problems and contemporary economic systems.  They examine consequences of public policies and their impact on a free market economy.  Mastering economics knowledge and skills enables students to anticipate changes in economic conditions and take appropriate action to improve not only their lives, but also society in general.

Students in Grade 12 are developmentally capable of sophisticated analytical thinking and are active participants in the current economy as consumers, employees, or both.  Instruction that combines required content and effective strategies encourages students to develop skills for understanding how economies function, recognizing economic and social problems, and evaluating costs and benefits of choices.  Instructional activities address decisions made regarding public policy, including their impact on current economic issues.  Grade 12 economics instruction includes an analysis of primary sources and economic data, economic research using technological resources, group presentations using computer technology, and other active learning opportunities.  

Students will:

  1. Explain why productive resources are limited and why individuals, businesses, and governments have to make choices in order to meet needs and wants.
    E G H CG
         
    • Explaining scarcity as a basic condition that exists when unlimited wants exceed limited productive resources
    • Explaining land as an example of a natural resource, labor as an example of a human resource, capital as examples of physical and human resources, and entrepreneurship to be the factors of production
    • Explaining opportunity cost as the next best alternative to relinquish when individuals, businesses, and governments confront scarcity by making choices
  2. Explain how rational decision making entails comparing additional costs of alternatives with additional benefits.
    E G H CG
    • Illustrating on a production possibilities curve how rational decision making involves trade-offs between two options
    • Explaining rational decision making as the comparison between marginal benefits and marginal costs of an action
  3. Describe different economic systems used to allocate scarce goods and services.
    E G H CG
       
    • Defining command, market, and mixed economic systems
    • Describing how different economic systems answer the three basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce
    • Evaluating how each type of system addresses private ownership, profit motive, consumer sovereignty, competition, and government regulation
  4. Describe the role of government in a market economy, including promoting and securing competition, protecting private property rights, promoting equity, providing public goods and services, resolving externalities and other market failures, and stabilizing growth in the economy.
    E G H CG
         
    • Explaining how government regulation and deregulation policies affect consumers and producers
  5. Explain that a country’s standard of living depends upon its ability to produce goods and services.
    E G H CG
    • Explaining productivity as the amount of outputs, or goods and services, produced from inputs, or factors of production
    • Describing how investments in factories, equipment, education, new technology, training, and health improve economic growth and living standards
  6. Describe how specialization and voluntary exchange between buyers and sellers lead to mutually beneficial outcomes.
    E G H CG
         
    • Illustrating on a circular flow diagram the product market; the factor market; the real flow of goods and services between and among businesses, households, and government; and the flow of money
    • Constructing examples of specialization and exchange
    • Illustrating on a table and a graph the law of supply and the law of demand
    • Describing the role of buyers and sellers in determining market clearing price
    • Illustrating on a table and graph how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity
    • Illustrating on a graph of supply and demand how price movements eliminate shortages and surpluses
    • Illustrating on a graph how different factors cause changes in a market supply and demand
    • Explaining how prices serve as incentives in a market economy
  7. Describe the organization and role of business.
    E G H CG
       
    • Comparing forms of business firms, including sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations
    • Explaining the role of profit as an incentive, including short-term versus long-run decisions, for all firms
    • Describing basic characteristics of pure competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly
    • Explaining ways firms finance operations, including retained earnings, stocks, and debt, and the advantages and disadvantages of each
    • Explaining ways firms engage in price and nonprice competition
    • Recognizing the role of economic institutions, including labor unions and nonprofit organizations, in market economies
  8. Explain the impact of the labor market on the United States’ economy.
    E G H CG
     
    • Identifying regional characteristics of the labor force of the United States, including gender, race, socioeconomic background, education, age, and regional specialization
    • Explaining how supply of and demand for labor affect wages
    • Describing characteristics that are most likely to increase wages and nonwage benefits, including skill, productivity, education, occupation, and mobility
    • Explaining how unemployment and inflation impose costs on individuals and nations
    • Determining the relationship of Alabama and the United States to the global economy regarding current technological innovations and industries
      • Examples: World Wide Web, peanut industry, telecommunications industry, aerospace industry 
    • Tracing the history of labor unions and the methods of contract negotiation by labor and management
  9. Describe methods used to measure overall economic activity, including the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the Consumer Price Index (CPI), inflation, and unemployment.
    E G H CG
       
    • Explaining how overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by spending decisions of households, businesses, and government; net exports in the short run; and production decisions of firms and technology in the long run
    • Identifying structural, cyclical, and frictional unemployment
    • Describing stages of the business cycle and how employment and inflation change during those stages
  10. Explain the structure, role, and functions of the United States Federal Reserve System.
    E G H CG
         
    • Describing how the United States Federal Reserve System oversees the banking system and regulates the quantity of money in the economy
    • Defining monetary policy
    • Describing how the central bank uses its tools of monetary policy to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth
  11. Explain how the government uses fiscal policy to promote the economic goals of price stability, full employment, and economic growth.
    E G H CG
       
    • Defining fiscal policy and the use of taxation and government purchases
    • Comparing government deficits and the national debt
  12. Explain why individuals, businesses, and governments trade goods and services in the global economy.
    E G H CG
       
    • Defining absolute advantage and comparative advantage
    • Explaining how gains from trade, whether between two individuals or two countries, are based on the principle of comparative advantage
    • Defining exchange rates
    • Explaining how changes in exchange rates impact purchasing powers of individuals and businesses
    • Explaining tariffs, quotas, embargoes, standards, and subsidies as trade barriers
    • Explaining why countries sometimes impose trade barriers and sometimes advocate free trade